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“Punir menos, punir melhor”: discursos sobre crime e punição na produção de alternativas à prisão no Brasil

Souza, Guilherme Augusto Dornelles de
Fonte: Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul; Porto Alegre Publicador: Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul; Porto Alegre
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
PORTUGUêS
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O objetivo deste trabalho é evidenciar em que medida diferentes discursos sobre o crime, a punição e seus sujeitos, bem como sobre as relações entre a prisão e suas alternativas, foram articulados na produção de alternativas penais ao cárcere no Brasil. Entendemos que a compreensão desses discursos e dos modos como se articulam tem o potencial de tornar visíveis as racionalidades que orientam essas práticas estatais penais. A partir da revisão de pesquisas sobre a política criminal brasileira de 1984 à primeira década dos anos 2000 e de trabalhos sobre os efeitos produzidos pela implementação de penas diversas da prisão, compreendemos que o desenvolvimento de alternativas à prisão no Brasil se deu em um contexto marcado por múltiplas tendências político-criminais. A instituição de tais práticas estatais penais e os efeitos que produziram devem ser interpretados dentro desse contexto. Com base nas discussões do filósofo Michel Foucault, tomamos os discursos acerca das alternativas penais como práticas que possuem certa regularidade e condições de possibilidade para o seu aparecimento. Devem-se considerar os modos como objetos como “crime”, “prisão”, “punição” e “criminoso” são constituídos nesses discursos...

What’s the difference between a donkey and an elephant? Using panel data from US States to estimate the impact of partisanship on policy settings and economic outcomes

Leigh, Andrew
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 208909 bytes; 350 bytes; application/pdf; application/octet-stream
EN_AU
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16.81%
Using panel data from US states, I measure the impact of partisanship on a wide range of different policy settings and economic outcomes. Across 32 measures, there are surprisingly few differences in policy settings, social outcomes and economic outcomes under Democrats and Republicans. In terms of policies, Democratic Governors tend to prefer slightly higher minimum wages and more redistributive taxes. Under Republican Governors, incarceration rates are higher, while welfare caseloads are higher under Democratic Governors. In terms of social and economic outcomes, Democratic Governors tend to preside over higher median post-tax income, lower post-tax inequality, and lower unemployment rates. However, for 25 of the 32 dependent variables, gubernatorial partisanship does not have a statistically significant impact on policy outcomes and social welfare. I find no evidence of gubernatorial partisan differences in welfare generosity, the number of government employees or their salaries, state revenue, incarceration rates, execution rates, pre-tax incomes and inequality, crime rates, suicide rates, and test scores. These results are robust to the use of regression discontinuity estimation, to take account of the possibility of reverse causality. Overall...

Estimating the impact of gubernatorial partisanship on policy settings and economic outcomes: a regression discontinuity approach

Leigh, Andrew
Fonte: Centre for Economic Policy Research, ANU Publicador: Centre for Economic Policy Research, ANU
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.81%
Using panel data from US states over the period 1941-2002, I measure the impact of gubernatorial partisanship on a wide range of different policy settings and economic outcomes. Across 32 measures, there are surprisingly few differences in policy settings, social outcomes and economic outcomes under Democrat and Republican Governors. In terms of policies, Democratic Governors tend to prefer slightly higher minimum wages. Under Republican Governors, incarceration rates are higher, while welfare caseloads are higher under Democratic Governors. In terms of social and economic outcomes, Democratic Governors tend to preside over higher median post-tax income, lower posttax inequality, and lower unemployment rates. However, for 26 of the 32 dependent variables, gubernatorial partisanship does not have a statistically significant impact on policy outcomes and social welfare. I find no evidence of gubernatorial partisan differences in tax rates, welfare generosity, the number of government employees or their salaries, state revenue, incarceration rates, execution rates, pre-tax incomes and inequality, crime rates, suicide rates, and test scores. These results are robust to the use of regression discontinuity estimation, to take account of the possibility of reverse causality. Overall...

Being inside. An explorative study into emotional reactions of juvenile offenders to custody

Laan, André M. van der; Vervoorn, Lisette; Schans, Coen A. van der; Bogaerts, Stefan
Fonte: Universität Tübingen Publicador: Universität Tübingen
Tipo: Buch (Monographie); info:eu-repo/semantics/book
EN
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At the request of the Department for Judicial Youth Policy (DJJ) of the Ministry of Justice, the WODC (Research and Documentation Centre) conducted an exploratory study into the relation between incarceration and the emotional reactions of juveniles incarcerated in custodial institutions under criminal law. The background to this request relates to signals picked up during work visits to facilities that some young people respond to their custody with a reaction of pride. This reaction is undesirable; it will not stimulate the learning possibilities of juveniles with regard to behavioural change. In mutual consultation with DJJ, it was decided to interpret the request more broadly and to study various emotional reactions exhibited by juvenile offenders with regard to custody. The study was limited to the incarceration of juvenile offenders aged 12 to 24. Studies that relate to interventions or treatment during custody were excluded as much as possible. We also studied the literature regarding to the relation between emotional reactions felt during custody and recidivism.

L’illusion des signaux pénaux : l’effet tendancieux de l’impunité différentielle

Charette, Yanick
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
FR
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En utilisant une approche économique du crime, cette thèse s’intéresse à la capacité des délinquants à minimiser leurs risques d’arrestation ou de condamnation et à l’impact de cette adaptation différentielle sur la manière dont on devrait interpréter le profil du délinquant qu’offrent les statistiques policières ou correctionnelles. Les études qui ont utilisé cette approche ont surtout insisté sur les coûts pénaux, mais omettent de prendre en considération les bénéfices que procurent les crimes aux délinquants et leur vulnérabilité différentielle aux risques, pourtant essentiels à la validation de cette approche. En considérant les expériences pénales comme un signal d’information entre les délinquants et les acteurs du système de justice criminelle, ceux-ci devront interpréter ce signal avec du bruit : l’évitement pénal. Cette distorsion du signal induit chez les policiers, les juges ou les agents correctionnels l’image trompeuse du délinquant inefficace. Notre première analyse, basée sur une méthode d’estimation des populations, évalue l’intensité de cette distorsion à travers les différentes étapes du système pénal (arrestation, condamnation, incarcération). Ce bruit ne se distribue pas de façon aléatoire...

Policing and Prisons in the Middle East: Formations of Coercion

Fonte: Columbia University Press Publicador: Columbia University Press
Tipo: Livro
EN
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From publisher: 'In the Middle East, the emergence of the modern nation-state has also produced a concentration in coercive power. The region now harbors numerous mukhabarat states that extensively police and incarcerate its citizens, engaging in widespread torture and implementing spectacular punishments. This volume is the first to systematically examine these practices within modern Middle East states, unraveling the complex operations of state power and the unforeseen consequences of popular politics. The study identifies the colonial origins and post-independence genesis of policing and incarceration among a variety of states, linking the centrality of criminalization to dissident politics. It also maps the micropractices of policing and incarceration and sketches the ambiguous boundaries between the police and the military.; (Product of workshop No. 2 at the 8th MRM 2007)

Stolen past: Shattered futures, aboriginal justice in Canada

Crow, Catharine L. L.
Fonte: Brock University Publicador: Brock University
Tipo: Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
ENG
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It is acknowledged that Canada's criminal justice system has some major flaws, particularly with respect to its application to various ethnic subgroups. Aboriginal Canadians are one subgroup particularly sensitive to the problems in the system as is reflected by their disproportionately high rates of criminality and incarceration. Over the past 50 years many programs have been developed and recommendations have been made to alleviate the tensions Aboriginals find within the system. However, the situation today is essentially the same. Aboriginals are still overrepresented within the system and solutions that have been brought forward have had little success in stemming their flow into the system. Blame for Aboriginal mistreatment in the system has been placed at all levels from line police officers to high-level officials and politicians and attempts to resolve problems continue as an on going process. However, many of the recommendations and reforms have revolved around culture conflict. Although this thesis recognizes the importance of culture conflict in the overrepresentation of Aboriginals within the Canadian criminal justice system, it has also recognized that culture conflict alone is not responsible for all the flaws within the system as it pertains to Aboriginals. This thesis is of the opinion that in order for reforms to the criminal justice system to be successful...

Aging and Sexual Offending: An Examination of Older Sexual Offenders

MARSHALL, Liam E.
Fonte: Quens University Publicador: Quens University
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN; EN
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This thesis examined the effect of age on sexually offensive behaviour. Research has noted both an increase in the average age of incarcerated offenders and that a higher percentage of older offenders are incarcerated for sexual offences than are younger offenders. Older sexual offenders were initially compared with younger offenders on offender and offence characteristics and these analyses revealed that older sexual offenders had a higher incidence of male victims, a younger victim age, and more intra-familial victims. Phallometric assessments of all sexual offenders were then examined to see whether sexual deviance may account for the differences found between older and younger sexual offenders in victim age and gender. These analyses revealed that the oldest and youngest offenders were more deviant than middle-aged sexual offenders and that the sexual interests of older offenders were more commonly for females. Finally, all subjects were classified as either Historical (offending had ceased, without judicial intervention, at least 7 years prior to incarceration), First-time (incarcerated for a recent sexual offence and no history of sexual offending), or Recidivist sexual offenders (currently incarcerated for a sexual offence and have at least one prior sentencing date for any sexual offence): age accounted for 12% of the variance in categorisation. Fifty-five percent of the sexual offenders age 60 years or more were found to have committed and ceased their offending at least seven years prior to incarceration (i.e....

Développement du modèle de spécificité clinique chez les personnes atteintes de troubles mentaux graves associés à des problèmes de violence et de comportements antisociaux

Dumais, Alexandre
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
FR
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Depuis la désinstitutionalisation dans les milieux psychiatriques, il a été souvent mentionné qu’une augmentation des admissions dans les milieux carcéraux et de psychiatrie légale était en cours afin de prendre soin des personnes atteintes de troubles mentaux graves (TMG). Parallèlement, plusieurs auteurs ont rapporté que les individus ayant des troubles mentaux sévères sont plus à risque de perpétrer des gestes antisociaux ou de violence. À l’égard de cette problématique, nous soutenons le modèle de la spécificité clinique. Celui-ci précise que des profils psychopathologiques particuliers augmentent le risque de violence, conduisent à différents types de fonctionnement social et articulent la demande de soins. L’environnement a, de plus, un effet modulateur au niveau du fonctionnement distinctif de l’individu. Une relation bidirectionnelle se construit entre la spécificité psychopathologique et l’environnement, plus particulièrement en ce qui a trait aux relations interpersonnelles, au milieu socioéconomique, au patron d’utilisation des services de psychiatrie et à l’interaction avec le système de justice qui déterminent subséquemment le type de prise en charge ou le statut légal du patient. Afin d’appuyer ce modèle...

A aberração carcerária à moda francesa

Wacquant,Loïc
Fonte: Instituto de Estudos Sociais e Políticos (IESP) da Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ) Publicador: Instituto de Estudos Sociais e Políticos (IESP) da Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2004 PT
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An analysis of the French prison system's ebullience since 2001 shows that to use incarceration as a social vacuum cleaner in order to rid society of the dregs resulting from the economic transformations of neoliberalism is in fact an aberration. Not only do French crimes rates fail to justify the boom in the country's prison population, but comparative criminology confirms that there is no correlation between the incarceration rate and the crime rate. Automatic recourse to confinement in order to quash urban disorder is a remedy that nearly always aggravates the ill it is supposed to cure. It reinforces economic marginalization, social alienation, and the convicts' feeling of injustice, since prisons disproportionately affect the economically and culturally most vulnerable social categories. It is unrealistic to treat misdemeanors with such a gross and ineffective instrument as imprisonment, and it is urgent to reconnect the discussion on delinquency to the broad social issue of this century that this discussion conceals: the emergence of de-socialized wage-earners, the social insecurity vector, and material and mental deterioration.

Associations Between Individual and Family Level Characteristics and Parenting Practices in Incarcerated African American Fathers

Modecki, Kathryn L.; Wilson, Melvin N.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /10/2009 EN
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We investigated the reported parenting practices of fifty incarcerated African American fathers. Fathers were interviewed using hypothetical vignettes adapted from the Parenting Dimensions Inventory (PDI) and received scores on two parenting practices: responsive and restrictive. Father's individual level (education and length of time spent incarcerated) and family level (number of relationships that have borne children) characteristics were significantly associated with their parenting practices. Based on canonical correlation analysis, on function one, responsive parenting was positively associated with education level and negatively associated with both cumulative incarceration time and more numerous partner fertility. Restrictive parenting was negatively associated with education level and positively associated with both cumulative incarceration time and more numerous partner fertility. Function 2 capitalized on variance in the restrictive parenting predictor that was not utilized in function 1, and likely captured lack of opportunity to parent. On function 2, restrictive parenting was negatively associated with cumulative time spent incarcerated and more numerous partner fertility. In all, results suggest that prison-based education programs should be part of an overall response to incarcerated fathers. These results add to the growing body of research on incarcerated fathers and fragile families.

From Public to Private Care The Historical Trajectory of Medical Services in a New York City Jail

Shalev, Noga
Fonte: American Public Health Association Publicador: American Public Health Association
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /06/2009 EN
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Over the past 25 years, incarceration rates in the United States have more than tripled. Providing health care services for this growing number of inmates poses immense medical and public health challenges. Focusing on the administrative and financial shifts in health care delivery, I examined the history of medical services in one of the nation's largest correctional facilities, Rikers Island in New York City. Over time, medical services at Rikers have become increasingly privatized. This trend toward privatization is mirrored nationwide and coincides with the rising prevalence of incarceration.

Jails, prisons, and the health of urban populations: A review of the impact of the correctional system on community health

Freudenberg, Nicholas
Fonte: Springer-Verlag Publicador: Springer-Verlag
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /06/2001 EN
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This review examined the interactions between the correctional system and the health of urban populations. Cities have more poor people, more people of color, and higher crime rates than suburban and rural areas; thus, urban populations are overrepresented in the nation's jails and prisons. As a result, US incarceration policies and programs have a disproportionate impact on urban communities, especially black and Latino ones. Health conditions that are overrepresented in incarcerated populations include substance abuse, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and other infectius diseases, perpetration and victimization by violence, mental illness, chronic disease, and reproductive health problems. Correctional systems have direct and indirect effects on health. Indirectly, they influence family structure, economic opportunities, political participation, and normative community values on sex, drugs, and violence. Current correctional policies also divert resources from other social needs. Correctional systems can have a direct effect on the health of urban populations by offering health care and health promotion in jails and prisons, by linking inmates to community services after release, and by assisting in the process of community reintegration. Specific recommendations for action and reseach to reduce the adverse health and social consequences of current incarceration policies are offered.

Modeling the Initiation of Others Into Injection Drug Use, Using Data From 2,500 Injectors Surveyed in Scotland During 2008–2009

White, Simon R.; Hutchinson, Sharon J.; Taylor, Avril; Bird, Sheila M.
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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The prevalence of injection drug use has been of especial interest for assessment of the impact of blood-borne viruses. However, the incidence of injection drug use has been underresearched. Our 2-fold aim in this study was to estimate 1) how many other persons, per annum, an injection drug user (IDU) has the equivalent of full responsibility (EFR) for initiating into injection drug use and 2) the consequences for IDUs' replacement rate. EFR initiation rates are strongly associated with incarceration history, so that our analysis of IDUs' replacement rate must incorporate when, in their injecting career, IDUs were first incarcerated. To do so, we have first to estimate piecewise constant incarceration rates in conjunction with EFR initiation rates, which are then combined with rates of cessation from injecting to model IDUs' replacement rate over their injecting career, analogous to the reproduction number of an epidemic model. We apply our approach to Scotland's IDUs, using over 2,500 anonymous injector participants who were interviewed in Scotland's Needle Exchange Surveillance Initiative during 2008–2009. Our approach was made possible by the inclusion of key questions about initiations. Finally, we extend our model to include an immediate quit rate...

Patient Awareness and Symptoms From an Incisional Hernia

Ah-kee, Elliott Yann; Kallachil, Thomas; O'Dwyer, Patrick J.
Fonte: The International College of Surgeons, World Federation of General Surgeons and Surgical Specialists, Inc. Publicador: The International College of Surgeons, World Federation of General Surgeons and Surgical Specialists, Inc.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2014 EN
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Incisional hernia is a common postoperative complication following open abdominal surgery with incidence varying between 3% and 20%.1 Approximately half of all incisional hernias are diagnosed within 1 year following surgery. In the United Kingdom alone, about 10,000 incisional hernia repairs are performed annually. Incisional hernia repairs are generally elective with emergency repair due to incarceration or strangulation constituting about 15% of repairs.1 Incisional hernia repair is not a low-risk operation and generally has relatively poor results due to chronic postoperative pain and high recurrence rates.2−3 Little has been published on patients' awareness of incisional hernia following open abdominal surgery. Moreover, there are very few publications on indications for incisional hernia repair and on the natural course of such hernias. The literature suggests that symptoms and complaints usually presented by patients include pain, discomfort, cosmetic complaints, skin problems, incarceration, strangulation, functional disability, and pulmonary dysfunction.4−6 The aim of this study was to investigate whether patients were aware that they had a hernia. In addition, we sought to determine symptoms for those who knew that they had an incisional hernia.

Health, mental health, substance use, and service utilization among rural and urban incarcerated women

Staton-Tindall, Michele; Duvall, Jamieson L.; Leukefeld, Carl; Oser, Carrie B.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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16.81%
Incarcerated women commonly report health, mental health, and substance use problems, yet there is limited research on service utilization before incarceration, particularly among women from urban and rural areas. This study includes a stratified random sample of 100 rural and urban incarcerated women to profile the health, mental health, substance use, and service utilization, to examine the relationship between the number of self-reported problems and service utilization, and to examine self-reported health and mental health problems in prison as associated with pre-incarceration health-related problems and community service utilization. Study findings suggest that health and mental health problems and substance use do not differ significantly among rural and urban women prisoners. However, there are differences in service utilization – particularly behavioral health services including mental health and substance abuse services with urban women reporting more service utilization. In addition, rural women who reported using needed community services before prison also reported fewer health problems in prison. Implications for correctional and community treatment opportunities in rural and urban areas are discussed.

Grief Interrupted: The Experience of Loss Among Incarcerated Women

Harner, Holly M.; Hentz, Patricia M.; Evangelista, Maria Carmela
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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16.81%
Incarcerated women face a number of stressors apart from the actual incarceration. Nearly half of all women in prison experience the death of a loved one during their incarceration. Our purpose for this study was to explore the experience of grief and loss among incarcerated women using a phenomenological method. Our study approach followed van Manen's method of phenomenology and Munhall's description of existential lifeworlds. Our analysis revealed four existential lifeworlds: temporality: frozen in time; spatiality: no place, no space to grieve; corporeality: buried emotions; and relationality: never alone, yet feeling so lonely. The findings generated from this study can help mental health providers as well as correctional professionals develop policies and programs that facilitate the grief process of incarcerated women within the confines of imprisonment.

Two Tuberculosis Genotyping Clusters, One Preventable Outbreak

Buff, Ann M.; Sosa, Lynn E.; Hoopes, Andrea J.; Buxton-Morris, Deborah; Condren, Thomas B.; Hadler, James L.; Haddad, Maryam B.; Moonan, Patrick K.; Lobato, Mark N.
Fonte: Association of Schools of Public Health Publicador: Association of Schools of Public Health
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2009 EN
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In 2006, eight community tuberculosis (TB) cases and a ninth incarceration-related case were identified during an outbreak investigation, which included genotyping of all Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates. In 1996, the source patient had pulmonary TB but completed only two weeks of treatment. From February 2005 to May 2006, the source patient lived in four different locations while contagious. The outbreak cases had matching isolate spoligotypes; however, the mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit (MIRU) patterns from isolates from two secondary cases differed by one tandem repeat at a single MIRU locus. The source patient's isolates showed a mixed mycobacterial population with both MIRU patterns. Traditional and molecular epidemiologic methods linked eight secondary TB cases to a single source patient whose incomplete initial treatment, incarceration, delayed diagnosis, and housing instability resulted in extensive transmission. Adequate treatment of the source patient's initial TB or early diagnosis of recurrent TB could have prevented this outbreak.

Gambling behind bars : does prison provide ideal conditions?

Brochu, Serge; Beauregard, Valérie
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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While studies exist on the gambling habits of the correctional population prior to incarceration, little information exists on gambling habits during imprisonment. This article aims to describe gambling practices in Quebec prisons. The impact of prison life on these activities and their meaning will be analyzed, relying on semistructured interviews with 51 men currently detained in three federal penitentiaries in Quebec. Contrary to our expectations, the regulations prohibiting gambling in Correctional Service of Canada institutions do not present a central obstacle to this practice. In fact, participation in gambling is limited more by elements connected to the detention institution and the sentence. The availability of certain games, more particularly card games such as poker, as well as the pleasure resulting from those games seem considerably limited in comparison with group bets like sports pools.; Bien que des études existent sur les habitudes de jeu de la population carcérale avant incarcération, on a peu d’information sur les habitudes de jeu pendant l’emprisonnement. Le présent article vise à décrire les pratiques de jeu dans les prisons du Québec. On analysera l’impact de la vie en prison sur ces activités et leur signification en s’appuyant sur des entrevues semi-structurées avec 51 hommes actuellement détenus dans trois établissements pénitentiaires fédéraux au Québec. Contrairement à ce que nous nous attendions de trouver...

Preschool Outcomes of Children Who Lived as Infants in a Prison Nursery

Goshin, Lorie S.; Byrne, Mary W.; Blanchard-Lewis, Barbara
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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This study examined long-term outcomes of children who spent their first one to eighteen months in a US prison nursery. Behavioral development in 47 preschool children who lived in a prison nursery was compared with 64 children from a large national dataset who were separated from their mothers because of incarceration. Separation was associated with significantly worse anxious/depressed scores, even after controlling for risks in the caregiving environment. Findings suggest that prison nursery co-residence with developmental support confers some resilience in children who experience early maternal incarceration. Co-residence programs should be promoted as a best practice for incarcerated childbearing women.