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Os sindicalistas nas entrelinhas: o caso do Sintetel pós-privatizações; Trade union activists between the lines: the case of Sintetel after privatization

Rombaldi, Mauricio
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 22/10/2007 PT
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A reestruturação nas telecomunicações brasileiras iniciada em meados dos anos 1990 com a quebra do monopólio estatal e a privatização do sistema Telebrás, em 1998, trouxe significativas mudanças para os sindicatos do setor. De um lado, o eixo homogêneo de negociações sindicato/empresa do período estatal fragmentou-se, tornando as negociações geograficamente dispersas. De outro, a nova forma assumida no setor influencia as experiências vivenciadas no trabalho e o perfil dos trabalhadores e novos dirigentes sindicais: agora eles são mais jovens, com escolarização maior e de tipo diverso, e pior remunerados. Disto resulta em diferenças entre distintas gerações de sindicalistas quanto às interpretações do presente e do passado, bem como quanto às percepções sobre a legitimidade das práticas sindicais. Tais diferenças, quando somadas às imposições da reorganização das relações de trabalho no setor, resultam na mudança do padrão de negociação do sindicato, bem como na sua reorganização interna. O presente estudo analisa o impacto da privatização da TELESP nas atividades sindicais do SINTETEL de São Paulo, tendo em vista a conjunção de gerações de sindicalistas e sua influência na estratégia da instituição. Para a análise utilizaram-se entrevistas com dirigentes e ex-dirigentes...

Demandas por um novo arcabouço sociojurídico na Organização Mundial do Comércio e o caso do Brasil; Non-state actors claims before the World Trade Organization and a case analysis about Brazil

Badin, Michelle Ratton Sanchez
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 30/04/2004 PT
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45.59%
Com o objetivo de analisar as demandas por um novo arcabouço sociojurídico na Organização Mundial do Comércio (OMC), este trabalho analisa os movimentos que permitiram algumas "desestruturações" da "ordem internacional" e permitiram a identificação de dois modos de produção no sistema internacional: o interestatal e o cosmopolita. A promoção da autonomia do espaço cosmopolita influiu significativamente na estrutura dos tradicionais fóruns interestatais como é o caso da OMC. Através da análise das estruturas do sistema multilateral de comércio, indica-se aquelas que favoreceram as demandas das instituições não-estatais, com diversas racionalidades e formas de ação perante a OMC, e as influências dessas instituições nas formas de regulamentação dessa organização. Nossa preocupação é identificar no pluralismo de instituições a consolidação de um multilateralismo complexo, resultado de uma transformação na forma de governança da economia e dos movimentos sociais globais. Tais relações promovem a repolitização do sistema multilateral de comércio e apontam para o desafio da inserção da OMC num sistema de governança global. Uma segunda parte do trabalho analisa a recepção de um novo arcabouço sociojurídico na OMC pelo Estado e pela sociedade brasileiros.; The objective of this work is to analyse claims for a new social and legal structure in the World Trade Organization (WTO). For this purpose it investigates the movements which promoted the "dismantling" of the "international order" and encouraged the recognition of the existence of two different modes of production within the international system: on the one hand a system between states; and a cosmopolitan one on the other hand. The autonomy of the cosmopolitan space has changed the structure of the traditional fora...

Structural changes and external vulnerabilities in the Brazilian economy : 1995-2009

Rodrigues, Rossana Lott; Lopes, João Carlos; Dias, João; Moretto, Antonio Carlos
Fonte: ISEG. Departamento de Economia Publicador: ISEG. Departamento de Economia
Tipo: Outros
Publicado em //2013 ENG
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45.59%
From the 1990s, the reorientation of the development model, which switched from protective of industrial sector to intensifier of the trade liberalization process, brought the need for reorganization of large productive sectors of the Brazilian economy, were openly forced to face global competitors, within the established international conditions. Thus, during the 1990s, the Brazilian economy experienced a period of fast and deep changes, combining the process of intensification of trade liberalization with a view of industrial and technological policy which combines sectoral and systemic dimension, with privatization of important sectors of the economy (such as electricity and telecommunications sectors), and a stabilization program (Real Plan), based on a fixed exchange rate, with important effects on the whole economy. This article aims to assess the evolution of external vulnerability and structural changes in terms of generating value added in the Brazilian economy in the period 1995-2009, subdivided into three sub-periods, namely 1995-2000, 2000-2005 and 2005 -2009, by means of a novel treatment of the inter-sectoral output multipliers. The data base was the annual input-output matrices from Brazil for 1995, 2000, 2005 and 2009...

When do trade reforms imply larger poverty reductions?

Batista, Rodrigo dos Santos
Fonte: NSBE - UNL Publicador: NSBE - UNL
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Publicado em /06/2010 ENG
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A Work Project, presented as part of the requirements for the Award of a Masters Degree in Economics from the NOVA – School of Business and Economics; I study the group of countries who conducted the largest tariff reductions of the late 1980’s to analyse the relationship between trade reforms and different poverty reductions. I find that countries with larger reductions in poverty are associated with higher labour to land ratio, lower capital to labour ratio, negative trade balance and better legal systems. I find that W.T.O. participation is not relevant to poverty reductions. I also find that changes in exports good’s prices can affect the countries poverty. Econometric analysis although supporting the coefficients signs fails to provide significant results.

Global Trade, Local Impacts: Lessons from California on Health Impacts and Environmental Justice Concerns for Residents Living near Freight Rail Yards

Hricko, Andrea; Rowland, Glovioell; Eckel, Sandrah; Logan, Angelo; Taher, Maryam; Wilson, John
Fonte: MDPI Publicador: MDPI
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.6%
Global trade has increased nearly 100-fold since 1950, according to the World Trade Organization. Today, major changes in trade are occurring with the advent of mega-ships that can transport thousands more containers than cargo ships now in use. Because global trade is expected to increase dramatically, the railroad industry—in the U.S. alone—has invested more than $5 billion a year over the past decade to expand rail yards and enhance rail routes to transport goods from ports to retail destinations. This article describes cancer risks for residents living in close proximity to rail yards with emissions of diesel particulate matter pollution from locomotives, trucks and yard equipment. The article examines the demographics (income, race/ethnicity) of populations living in the highest estimated cancer risk zones near 18 major rail yards in California, concluding that the majority are over-represented by either lower-income or minority residents (or both). The authors also describe a review of the news media and environmental impact reports to determine if rail yards are still being constructed or expanded in close proximity to homes and schools or in working class/working poor communities of color. The paper suggests policy efforts that might provide more public health protection and result in more “environmentally just” siting of rail yards. The authors conclude that diesel pollution from rail yards...

Innovation, Inclusion, and Integration : From Transition to Convergence in Eastern Europe and the Former Soviet Union

Mitra, Pradeep
Fonte: Washington, DC : World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC : World Bank
EN_US
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45.6%
Since the fall of the Berlin Wall the transition countries of Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union have witnessed dramatic changes in outputs, the nature of jobs, standards of living, patterns of trade and the quality of education and health services. Yet, during much of this period, institutions that shape firm behavior and outcomes, most notably the business environment, have been converging toward those in developed market economies. The countries that acceded to the European Union in 2004 are the furthest advanced in this process. The countries of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) are followers but are some distance behind. The six regional flagship studies produced by the Europe and Central Asia Region of the World Bank during the last five years, of which this volume is a synthesis and culmination, attest to this evolution from their particular perspectives. Those studies have covered productivity growth, the enhancement of job opportunities, trade and integration, migration and remittances, poverty and inequality and the challenges posed by aging populations. All the reports in this series offer specific policy recommendations that are intended to help the countries of Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union promote economic growth and foster higher living standards in the rapidly changing world in which they are undertaking the transition to a market economy.

Forest Cover Change in Space and Time : Combining the von Thünen and Forest Transition Theories

Angelsen, Arild
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
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This paper presents a framework for analyzing tropical deforestation and reforestation using the von Thunen model as its starting point: land is allocated to the use which yields the highest rent, and the rents of various land uses are determined by location. Forest cover change therefore becomes a question of changes in rent of forest versus non-forest use. While this is a simple and powerful starting point, more intriguing issues arise when this is applied to analyze real cases. An initial shift in the rent of one particular land use generates feedbacks which affect the rent of all land uses. For example, a new technology in extensive agriculture should make this land use more profitable and lead to more forest clearing, but general equilibrium effects (changes in prices and local wages) can modify or even reverse this conclusion. Another issue is how a policy change or a shift in broader market, technological, and institutional forces will affect various land use rents. The paper deals with three such areas: technological progress in agriculture...

Global Economic Prospects, Volume 5, June 2012 : Managing Growth in a Volatile World

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
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The year began on a positive note. A marked improvement in market sentiment, combined with monetary policy easing in developing countries, was reflected in a rebound in economic activity in both developing and advanced countries. Industrial production, trade and capital goods sales all returned to positive territory, following the slow growth of the fourth quarter of 2011. Although debt levels in developing countries are lower, several countries (notably Jordan, India, and Pakistan) must reduce their structural fiscal balances to reduce debt to 40 percent of Gross domestic Product (GDP) by 2020 (or prevent debt-to-GDP ratios from rising further). As a result, sharp swings in investor sentiment and financial conditions will continue to complicate the conduct of macroeconomic policy in developing countries. In these conditions, policy in developing countries needs to be less reactive to short-term changes in external conditions, and more responsive to medium-term domestic considerations. A return to more neutral macroeconomic policies would also help developing countries reduce their vulnerabilities to external shocks, by rebuilding fiscal space, reducing short-term debt exposures and recreating the kinds of buffers that allowed them to react so resiliently to the 2008/09 crisis.

The Impact of Economic Reforms in Rural Households in Ethiopia : A Study from 1989 to 1995

Dercon, Stefan
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
EN_US
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This study examines the poverty, and growth experience of six villages in rural Ethiopia, from 1989 to 1995. The time period was one of relative peace politically, which promoted considerable change in economic policies pertaining to the rural sector. As a result, local growth out-performed the average growth rate in gross domestic product. The focus of the study is the link between economic reforms, growth, and changes in poverty. The author poses the question: Can the observed reduction in poverty be explained by reform-induced higher returns to physical, and human capital, or simply by better weather? To find the answer, a profit function framework is employed to explain growth using prices, and endowments of land, labor, human capital, and location characteristics, with controls for shocks (for example, ill health and drought). The analysis finds that, on average, the poor has benefited more from the reforms than have the non-poor. But the experience of the poor is mixed, with some out-performing all other households...

Growth, Distribution, and Poverty in Africa : Messages from the 1990s

Christiaensen, Luc; Demery, Lionel; Paternostro, Stefano
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, D.C. Publicador: World Bank, Washington, D.C.
EN_US
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Christiaensen, Demery, and Paternostro review recent evidence on the trends in household well-being in Africa during the 1990s. They draw on the findings of a series of studies on poverty dynamics that use the better data sets now available. The authors begin by taking a broad view of poverty, tracing changes in both income poverty and in other more direct measures of individual welfare. Experiences have been varied: several countries have seen a sharp decline in poverty, while some have witnessed a marked increase. Yet, in the aggregate, economic growth has been pro-poor. Nonetheless, the aggregate numbers also hide significant and systematic distributional effects which have caused some groups to be left behind. The authors draw four key conclusions: Economic policy reforms (improving macroeconomic balances and liberalizing markets) have been conducive to reducing poverty. Market connectedness is key for the poor to benefit from new opportunities generated by economic growth. Some population groups and regions, by virtue of their sheer remoteness...

A Mapping of Labor Mobility Costs in Developing Countries

Artuç, Erhan; Lederman, Daniel; Porto, Guido
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, D.C. Publicador: World Bank, Washington, D.C.
EN
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45.61%
Estimates of labor mobility costs are needed to assess the responses of employment and wages to trade shocks when factor adjustment is costly. Available methods to estimate those costs rely on panel data, which are seldom available in developing countries. The authors propose a method to estimate mobility costs using readily obtainable data worldwide. The estimator matches the changes in observed sectoral employment allocations with the predicted allocations from a model of costly labor adjustment. This paper estimates a world map of labor mobility costs and uses those estimates to explore the response of labor markets to trade policy.

Macro and Micro Perspectives of Growth and Poverty in Africa

Christiaensen, Luc; Demery, Lionel; Paternostro, Stefano
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.59%
This article reviews trends in poverty, economic policies, and growth in a sample of African countries during the 1990s, drawing on the better household data now available. Experiences have varied. Some countries have seen sharp drops in income poverty, whereas others have witnessed marked increases. In some countries overall economic growth has been pro-poor and in others not. But the aggregate numbers hide systematic distributional effects. Taking both macro and micro perspectives of growth and poverty in Africa, the article draws four key conclusions. First, economic policy reforms (improving macroeconomic balances and liberalizing markets) appear conducive to reducing poverty. Second, market connectedness is crucial to enable participation in the gains from economic growth. Some regions and households by virtue of their remoteness were left behind when growth picked up. Third, education and access to land emerge as key private endowments to help households benefit from new economic opportunities. Finally, rainfall variations and ill health have profound effects on poverty outcomes...

Cambodian Agriculture in Transition

World Bank Group
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Relatório
EN_US
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This report seeks to understand the successes, challenges and opportunities of Cambodia’s agricultural transformation over the past decade to derive lessons and insights on how to maintain future agricultural growth, and particularly on the government’s role in facilitating it. It is prepared per the request of the Supreme National Economic Council and the Ministry of Agriculture Forestry and Fisheries and is based on the primary farm data surveys from 2005 and 2013, and the secondary data from various sources. In 2013-2014, the agricultural growth slowed down to 1 percent from its average of 5.3 percent over 2004-2012. Is the country in transition to a slower agricultural growth? Cambodia can ill afford it because agricultural growth will be critical to continued poverty reduction in the country, given its large size in the economy. Market and private investment friendly policies and targeted public sector investments in irrigation, extension, and other ‘public good’ agricultural services, as feasible within the government’s total budget...

Political economy of altering trade restrictions in response to commodity price spikes

Thennakoon, J.
Fonte: Wiley Publicador: Wiley
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2015 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.6%
A model is developed to explain trade policy interventions in response to commodity price spikes. The model predicts that government preferences for averting losses for domestic interest groups lead to changes in trade distortions. In particular, trade interventions in response to downward price spikes are predicted, which is consistent with the proposal for a Special Safeguard Mechanism (SSM) in the World Trade Organization (WTO). Higher tariffs are likely in a noncooperative setting, and higher export subsidies will emerge in response. An efficient cooperative trade policy can be achieved in a repeated game setting and with possible involvement of the WTO.; Jayanthi Thennakoon

Population Aging and Households’ Saving in the Russian Federation

Bussolo, Maurizio; Simone, Schotte; Matytsin, Mikhail
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Working Paper; Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
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Using household data from the Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey, this paper assesses how aging affects saving. To overcome a systematic bias against the life-cycle hypothesis of survey data, the paper estimates how the age profile of saving changes when the micro data are corrected to account for the contribution to pensions (as additional saving) and receipt of benefits from pensions (as dissaving). With these corrections, the Russian data support the life-cycle hypothesis. A small decline in the aggregate saving rate, because of aging, can thus be expected. However, since aggregate saving rates result from a combination of age and cohort effects, this decline may not be significant. When extrapolating the rising trends of the cohort effect, the fact that younger generations are earning and saving more than older generation at the same age, the projection shows a growing aggregate saving rate. The changes in saving of future cohorts, for example because of changes in the growth rate of the economy, can affect the aggregate saving rate even more than aging.

Latin America and the Caribbean : A Time to Choose, Caribbean Development in the 21st Century

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Country Economic Memorandum; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
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This report seeks to discuss the critical constraints to sustainable, job-creating growth, and to present policy options for the region and country Governments to stimulate such growth. It analyzes growth performance in the Caribbean over the last four decades, and highlights key determinants of past and also future growth. Given the recent deterioration in government finances, the report then studies key areas of government expenditure. A discussion of the climate for private investment follows, which looks at the framework that shapes the risks and returns for private investment. The report then discusses the impact of recent trade developments on the Caribbean, the future outlook in view of major ongoing changes in the international environment, as well as the opportunities that are likely to emerge, especially in the services sector. It then focuses on some key factors that have been significant in determining past growth in the Caribbean, including labor market issues; education, skill development and training; and, infrastructure. The report suggests a pro-active approach for the region to take on the challenges of a group of small states, facing severe resource constraints, eroding trade preferences, declining productivity, and increasing risk of macro instability. First...

Globalization and Technology Absorption : Role of Trade, FDI and Cross-Border Knowledge Flows

Goldberg, Itzhak; Branstetter, Lee; Goddard, John Gabriel; Kuriakose, Smita
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Improving the ability of Europe and Central Asia (ECA) countries to tap into the global technology pool is an important mechanism for accelerating their industrial development, worker productivity and economic growth. Trade flows, foreign direct investment (FDI), research and development (R&D), and labor mobility and training, are widely accepted as key mechanisms for knowledge absorption. Absorption requires tough decisions and large investments, as firms need to spend resources on modifying imported equipment and technologies, and reorganizing production lines and organizational structures. Case studies of privatized enterprises in Serbia highlight the important role of foreign investors in knowledge absorption, whether acquired through capital goods imports, exporting, hiring consultants and other knowledge brokers, or from licensing technology. The Serbian case studies targeted FDI based on acquisition of existing assets from the government (privatization), or from private owners, rather than 'greenfield' FDI. The analyses suggested...

Developing Countries' Changing Participation in World Trade

Martin, Will
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Journal Article; Publications & Research :: Journal Article; Publications & Research :: Journal Article
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.61%
Recent year have seen substantial reductions in trade policy and other barriers inhibiting developing country participation in world trade. Lower barriers have contributed to a dramatic shift in the pattern of developing country trade-away from dependence on commodity exports to much greater reliance on manufacture and services. In addition, exports to other developing countries have become much more important. These changes have profound implications for the role played by developing countered in the world economy and trade system.

The effect of trade on the demand for skill - evidence from the interstate highway system

Michaels, Guy
Fonte: Centre for Economic Policy Research Publicador: Centre for Economic Policy Research
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /01/2007 EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.61%
Since changes in trade openness are typically confounded with other factors, it has been difficult to identify the labor market consequences of increased international trade. The advent of the United States Interstate Highway System provides a unique policy experiment, which I use to identify the effect of reducing trade barriers on the relative demand for skilled labor. The Interstate Highway System was designed to connect major metropolitan areas, to serve national defense and to connect the United States to Canada and Mexico. As a consequence–though not an objective–many rural counties were also connected to the highway system. I find that these counties experienced an increase in trade-related activities, such as trucking and retail sales, by 7-10 percentage points per capita. Most significantly, by increasing trade the highways raised the relative demand for skilled manufacturing workers in counties with a high endowment of human capital and reduced it elsewhere, consistent with the predictions of the Heckscher-Ohlin model.

The effect of trade on the demand for skill - evidence from the interstate highway system

Michaels, Guy
Fonte: Centre for Economic Performance, London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: Centre for Economic Performance, London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /12/2006 EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.61%
Since changes in trade openness are typically confounded with other factors, it has been difficult to identify the labor market consequences of increased international trade. The advent of the United States Interstate Highway System provides a unique policy experiment, which I use to identify the effect of reducing trade barriers on the relative demand for skilled labor. The Interstate Highway System was designed to connect major metropolitan areas, to serve national defence and to connect the United States to Canada and Mexico. As a consequence – though not an objective – many rural counties were also connected to the highway system. I find that these counties experienced an increase in trade-related activities, such as trucking and retail sales, by 7-10 percentage points per capita. Most significantly, by increasing trade the highways raised the relative demand for skilled manufacturing workers in counties with a high endowment of human capital and reduced it elsewhere, consistent with the predictions of the Heckscher-Ohlin model.