Página 13 dos resultados de 1127 itens digitais encontrados em 0.003 segundos

Passive smoking at work: the short-term cost

McGhee, S.; Adab, P.; Hedley, A.; Lam, T. H.; Ho, L. M.; Fielding, R.; Wong, C. M.
Fonte: BMJ Group Publicador: BMJ Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /09/2000 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.74%
STUDY OBJECTIVE—To estimate the impact of passive smoking at work on use of health care services and absenteeism.
DESIGN—Cross sectional survey.
SETTING—A workforce in Hong Kong.
PARTICIPANTS—5142 never-smoking police officers in a total sample of 9926.
MAIN RESULTS—A consistently strong association was found among men between length of time exposed to passive smoking at work and self reported consultations with a doctor, use of medicines and time off work. Results for women were similar but most were not statistically significant.
CONCLUSIONS—The exposure of healthy adults to passive smoking at work is related to utilisation of health care services and extra time off work. This results in costs to the health services, to employers and to those exposed.


Keywords: passive smoking; absenteeism

Prognostic factors for respiratory sickness absence and return to work among blue collar workers and office personnel

Alexopoulos, E; Burdorf, A
Fonte: BMJ Group Publicador: BMJ Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /04/2001 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.74%
OBJECTIVES—To analyze factors that determine the occurrence of sickness absence due to respiratory disorders and the time it takes to return to work.
METHODS—A longitudinal study with 2 year follow up was conducted among 326 male blue collar and white collar workers. The survey started with an interview on respiratory complaints and spirometry. Sixty six (21%) workers were lost to follow up. Complete data on sickness absence among 251 workers during the follow up were collected from absence records and self reports. Regression analysis based on a proportional hazards model was applied to identify risk factors for the occurrence and duration of sickness absence due to respiratory disorders.
RESULTS—During the follow up 35% workers attributed at least one period of sickness absence to respiratory complaints, which accounted for 14.2% of all days lost. A history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) did not predict sickness absence for COPD; the same was true for chronic non-specific lung disease (CNSLD). Complaints about asthma contributed significantly to absence due to asthma (relative risk (RR) 3.96; 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.99 to 7.90). Job title was a significant predictor of sickness absence due to respiratory complaints. Decrease in forced vital capacity (FVC...

Actual and perceived impacts of tobacco regulation on restaurants and firms

Cremieux, P.; Ouellette, P.
Fonte: BMJ Group Publicador: BMJ Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /03/2001 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.74%
OBJECTIVE—To examine the actual and anticipated costs of a law regulating workplace smoking and smoking in restaurants, taking into consideration observed and anticipated infrastructure costs, lost productivity, increased absenteeism, and loss of clientele.
SETTING AND DESIGN—A survey of 401 Québec restaurants and 600 Québec firms conducted by the Québec Ministry of Health before the enactment of the law was used to derive costs incurred by those who had already complied and anticipated by those that did not.
RESULTS—Direct and indirect costs associated with tobacco regulation at work and in restaurants were minimal. Annualised infrastructure costs amounted to less than 0.0002% of firm revenues and 0.15% of restaurant revenues. Anticipated costs were larger and amounted to 0.0004% of firm revenues and 0.41% of restaurant revenues. Impacts on productivity, absenteeism, and restaurant patronage were widely anticipated but not observed in currently compliant establishments.
CONCLUSION—Firms and restaurants expected high costs to result from strict tobacco regulation because of infrastructure costs, decreased productivity, and decreased patronage. That none of these were actually observed suggests that policy makers should discount industry claims that smoking regulations impose undue economic hardship.


Keywords: regulation; firms; restaurants; costs; survey

Exploring Productivity Outcomes from a Brief Intervention for At-Risk Drinking in an Employee Assistance Program

Osilla, Karen Chan; Cruz, Erin dela; Miles, Jeremy N.V.; Zellmer, Steven; Watkins, Katherine; Larimer, Mary E.; Marlatt, G. Alan
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.74%
Brief intervention (BI) research has traditionally examined alcohol and drug use outcomes; however it is unknown whether BIs can also impact on-the-job productivity. This exploratory study examines changes in workplace productivity and related costs for clients receiving a BI for at-risk drinking in the employee assistance program (EAP). Participants were 44 clients attending the EAP for behavioral health concerns, screened for at-risk drinking, assigned to BI+Usual Care (n=25) or UC alone (n=19), and who completed 3-month follow-up. Absenteeism, presenteeism, and productivity costs were derived as outcomes. At follow-up, participants in the BI+UC group had improved productivity when at work (presenteeism) compared to the UC group. The estimated cost savings from improved productivity for the BI+UC group was $1200 per client over the UC group. Groups did not differ by absenteeism (missed days of work). Preliminary evidence suggests the broad impact BIs may have. Implications for future BI research are discussed.

The increasing burden of depression

Lépine, Jean-Pierre; Briley, Mike
Fonte: Dove Medical Press Publicador: Dove Medical Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.74%
Recent epidemiological surveys conducted in general populations have found that the lifetime prevalence of depression is in the range of 10% to 15%. Mood disorders, as defined by the World Mental Health and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition, have a 12-month prevalence which varies from 3% in Japan to over 9% in the US. A recent American survey found the prevalence of current depression to be 9% and the rate of current major depression to be 3.4%. All studies of depressive disorders have stressed the importance of the mortality and morbidity associated with depression. The mortality risk for suicide in depressed patients is more than 20-fold greater than in the general population. Recent studies have also shown the importance of depression as a risk factor for cardiovascular death. The risk of cardiac mortality after an initial myocardial infarction is greater in patients with depression and related to the severity of the depressive episode. Greater severity of depressive symptoms has been found to be associated with significantly higher risk of all-cause mortality including cardiovascular death and stroke. In addition to mortality, functional impairment and disability associated with depression have been consistently reported. Depression increases the risk of decreased workplace productivity and absenteeism resulting in lowered income or unemployment. Absenteeism and presenteeism (being physically present at work but functioning suboptimally) have been estimated to result in a loss of $36.6 billion per year in the US. Worldwide projections by the World Health Organization for the year 2030 identify unipolar major depression as the leading cause of disease burden. This article is a brief overview of how depression affects the quality of life of the subject and is also a huge burden for both the family of the depressed patient and for society at large.

School Attendance Problems and Youth Psychopathology: Structural Cross-Lagged Regression Models in Three Longitudinal Datasets

Wood, Jeffrey J.; Lynne, Sarah D.; Langer, David A.; Wood, Patricia A.; Clark, Shaunna L.; Eddy, J. Mark; Ialongo, Nicholas
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.74%
This study tests a model of reciprocal influences between absenteeism and youth psychopathology using three longitudinal datasets (Ns= 20745, 2311, and 671). Participants in 1st through 12th grades were interviewed annually or bi-annually. Measures of psychopathology include self-, parent-, and teacher-report questionnaires. Structural cross-lagged regression models were tested. In a nationally representative dataset (Add Health), middle school students with relatively greater absenteeism at study year 1 tended towards increased depression and conduct problems in study year 2, over and above the effects of autoregressive associations and demographic covariates. The opposite direction of effects was found for both middle and high school students. Analyses with two regionally representative datasets were also partially supportive. Longitudinal links were more evident in adolescence than in childhood.

Determinants for a low health-related quality of life in asthmatics

Leander, Mai; Lampa, Erik; Janson, Christer; Svärdsudd, Kurt; Uddenfeldt, Monica; Rask-Andersen, Anna
Fonte: Informa Healthcare Publicador: Informa Healthcare
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.74%
People with asthma suffer from impaired health-related quality of life (HRQL), but the determinants of HRQL among asthmatics are not completely understood. The aim of this investigation was to study determinants of low HRQL in asthmatics and to study whether the determinants of HRQL differ between sexes and age groups. A cohort of three age groups in Sweden was investigated in 1990 using a questionnaire with focus on respiratory symptoms. To study quality of life, the generic instrument Gothenburg Quality of Life was used. The participants were also investigated with interviews, spirometry, and allergy testing. Asthma was diagnosed in 616 subjects. Fifty-eight per cent (n = 359) of the subjects were women; and 24% were smokers, 22% ex-smokers, and 54% were non-smokers. Women were more likely than men to report poor health-related quality of life. Respiratory symptoms severity was another independent determinant of a lower quality of life as well as airway responsiveness to irritants. Current and former smokers also reported lower quality of life. Finally, absenteeism from school and work was associated with lower quality of life. Factors such as sex, smoking habits, airway responsiveness to irritants, respiratory symptom severity, allergy...

Sickness Absence in the Private Sector of Greece: Comparing Shipyard Industry and National Insurance Data

Alexopoulos, Evangelos C.; Merekoulias, Georgios; Tanagra, Dimitra; Konstantinou, Eleni C.; Mikelatou, Efi; Jelastopulu, Eleni
Fonte: MDPI Publicador: MDPI
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.74%
Approximately 3% of employees are absent from work due to illness daily in Europe, while in some countries sickness absence exceeds 20 days per year. Based on a limited body of reliable studies, Greek employees in the private sector seem to be absent far less frequently (<5 days/year) compared to most of the industrialized world. The aim of this study was to estimate the levels of sickness absence in the private sector in Greece, using shipyard and national insurance data. Detailed data on absenteeism of employees in a large shipyard company during the period 1999–2006 were utilized. National data on compensated days due to sickness absence concerning all employees (around 2 million) insured by the Social Insurance Institute (IKA, the largest insurance scheme in Greece) were retrieved from the Institute’s annual statistical reports for the period 1987–2006. Sick-leave days per employee and sick-leave rate (%) were calculated, among other indicators. In the shipyard cohort, the employment time loss due to sick leave was 1%. The mean number of sick-leave days per employee in shipyards ranged between 4.6 and 8.7 and sick-leave rate (sickness absenteeism rate) varied among 2% and 3.7%. The corresponding indicators for IKA were estimated between 5 and 6.3 sick-leave days per insured employee (median 5.8)...

Low back pain in a cohort of 622 Tunisian schoolchildren and adolescents: an epidemiological study

Bejia, Ismail; Abid, Nabiha; Salem, Kamel Ben; Letaief, Mondher; Younes, Mohamed; Touzi, Mongi; Bergaoui, Naceur
Fonte: Springer-Verlag Publicador: Springer-Verlag
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.74%
Low back pain (LBP) in children was considered for many years to be a rare condition revealing a serious disease, but in the last two decades, epidemiological studies have shown that the prevalence of nonspecific LBP in children is high. This study was aimed at analyzing the prevalence, severity, consequences and associated factors of LBP in children. A cross-sectional study was undertaken in two preparatory schools in the city of Monastir, Tunisia, in April 2002. This study included a total of 622 children and adolescents—326 females and 296 males—with a mean age of 14 years (range: 11–19 years). They completed the questionnaire in the presence of the physician. For the first 201 questionnaires collected, the corresponding children and adolescents underwent a spine medical examination, with evaluation of pain by visual analog scale if LBP was present. A stepwise logistic regression analysis was carried out to determine the risk factors associated with LBP and chronic LBP. The cumulative lifetime prevalence of LBP was 28.4%. Eight percent of the subjects suffered from chronic LBP. LBP was responsible for 23% of school absenteeism and 29% for sports absenteeism. Medical care requirement was observed in 32.2% and psychological symptoms in 75%. Stepwise logistic regression analysis showed that three factors were associated with LBP: school failure (held back 1 year)...

Burnout in Veterans Health Administration Mental Health Providers in Posttraumatic Stress Clinics

Garcia, Hector A.; McGeary, Cindy A.; McGeary, Donald D.; Finley, Erin P.; Peterson, Alan L.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /02/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.74%
The purpose of this study was to conduct the first assessment of burnout among Veterans Health Administration (VHA) mental health clinicians providing evidence-based posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) care. This study consisted of 138 participants and the sample was mostly female (67%), Caucasian (non-Hispanic; 81%), and married (70%) with a mean age of 44.3 years (SD = 11.2). Recruitment was directed through VHA PTSD Clinical Teams (PCT) throughout the United States based on a nationwide mailing list of PCT Clinic Directors. Participants completed an electronic survey that assessed demographics, organizational work factors, absenteeism, and burnout (assessed through the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey, MBI-GS). Twelve percent of the sample reported low Professional Efficacy, 50% reported high levels of Exhaustion, and 47% reported high levels of Cynicism as determined by the MBI-GS cut-off scores. Only workplace characteristics were significantly associated with provider scores on all 3 scales. Exhaustion and Cynicism were most impacted by perceptions of organizational politics/bureaucracy, increased clinical workload and control over how work is done. Organizational factors were also significantly associated with provider absenteeism and intent to leave his/her job. Findings suggest that providers in VHA specialty PTSD care settings may benefit from programs or supports aimed at preventing and/or ameliorating burnout.

Syndromic surveillance of influenza activity in Sweden: an evaluation of three tools

MA, T.; ENGLUND, H.; BJELKMAR, P.; WALLENSTEN, A.; HULTH, A.
Fonte: Cambridge University Press Publicador: Cambridge University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.74%
An evaluation was conducted to determine which syndromic surveillance tools complement traditional surveillance by serving as earlier indicators of influenza activity in Sweden. Web queries, medical hotline statistics, and school absenteeism data were evaluated against two traditional surveillance tools. Cross-correlation calculations utilized aggregated weekly data for all-age, nationwide activity for four influenza seasons, from 2009/2010 to 2012/2013. The surveillance tool indicative of earlier influenza activity, by way of statistical and visual evidence, was identified. The web query algorithm and medical hotline statistics performed equally well as each other and to the traditional surveillance tools. School absenteeism data were not reliable resources for influenza surveillance. Overall, the syndromic surveillance tools did not perform with enough consistency in season lead nor in earlier timing of the peak week to be considered as early indicators. They do, however, capture incident cases before they have formally entered the primary healthcare system.

Should General Practitioners Issue a Sick Certificate to Employees Who Consult for Low Back Pain in Primary Care?

Lewis, M.; Wynne-Jones, G.; Barton, P.; Whitehurst, D. G. T.; Wathall, S.; Foster, N. E.; Hay, E. M.; van der Windt, D.
Fonte: Springer US Publicador: Springer US
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.74%
Purpose Back pain is a common problem and has significant societal impact. Sickness certification is commonly issued to patients consulting their general practitioner with low back pain. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of certification for low back pain with clinical outcomes and cost consequences. Methods A prospective cohort study using linked questionnaire and medical record data from 806 low back pain patients in 8 UK general practices: comparison of 116 (14.4 %) who received a sickness certificate versus 690 who did not receive certification. The primary clinical measure was the Roland and Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMDQ). Data on back pain consultation and work absenteeism were used to calculate healthcare and societal costs. Results Participants issued a sickness certificate had higher back-related disability at baseline consultation and 6-month follow-up [mean difference 3.1 (95 % CI 1.8, 4.4) on the RMDQ], indicating worse health status. After fully adjusting for baseline differences, most changes in clinical outcomes at 6 months were not significantly different between study groups. Productivity losses were significantly higher for the certification group, with most absence occurring after the expected end of certification; mean difference in costs due to absenteeism over 6 months was £1...

Who’s Not Coming to Dinner? Evaluating Trends in Online Restaurant Reservations for Outbreak Surveillance

Nsoesie, Elaine O.; Buckeridge, David L.; Brownstein, John S.
Fonte: University of Illinois at Chicago Library Publicador: University of Illinois at Chicago Library
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.74%
Objective: The objective of this study is to evaluate whether trends in online restaurant table reservations can be used as an early indicator for a disease outbreak. Introduction: Epidemiologists, public health agencies and scientists increasingly augment traditional surveillance systems with alternative data sources such as, digital surveillance systems utilizing news reports and social media, over-the-counter medication sales, and school absenteeism. Similar to school absenteeism, an increase in reservation cancellations could serve as an early indicator of social disruption including a major public health event. In this study, we evaluated whether a rise in restaurant table availabilities could be associated with an increase in disease incidence. Methods: We monitored table availability using OpenTable; an online restaurant table reservation site for cities in the USA and Mexico. Our analysis can be summarized as follows. First, using the OpenTable site, we searched for the number of restaurants with available tables for two persons at lunch and dinner. Since different regions and individuals have different eating habits, we defined the lunch period between 12–3:30pm and dinner between 6–10:30pm. We searched for available tables every hour and half past the hour for every day of the week. Next...

Análise de avaliações discentes sobre as disciplinas de um curso de graduação em medicina

Salerno, Margareth Rodrigues
Fonte: Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul; Porto Alegre Publicador: Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul; Porto Alegre
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
PORTUGUêS
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.74%
Para atender as demandas sócio - culturais impostas pelo novo milênio e suas implicações na educação, foi necessário que professores e alunos participassem ativamente do processo ensino-aprendizagem. Neste contexto, a avaliação do curso pelos alunos tem sido uma ferramenta utilizada em várias escolas médicas nos diversos países. Para as instituições e para os docentes, estas avaliações permitem conhecer e medir os resultados obtidos, aprofundar a análise da realidade institucional, rever projetos, diagnosticar fragilidades adequar metas e corrigir possíveis desvios. Para acompanhamento e aprimoramento deste processo, foi necessária a criação de instrumentos que visassem avaliar o desempenho das mudanças propostas. Pela importância da veracidade e da confiabilidade que devem ter estas informações, a busca de instrumentos válidos e confiáveis é imprescindível. O presente estudo teve como objetivo geral analisar o questionário de avaliação das disciplinas respondido pelos alunos do curso de graduação da Faculdade de Medicina da PUCRS no ano de 2011, realizar a validação do questionário, verificar o nível de satisfação dos alunos em relação às disciplinas avaliadas do curso e a associação existente entre o nível de satisfação e o percentual de atividades práticas da disciplina...

Análise psicodinâmica do trabalho docente na rede pública estadual; Psychodynamic analysis of teaching work in public schools

Souza, Vanessa Alexandre de
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Goiás; Brasil; UFG; Programa de Pós-graduação em Sociologia (FCS); Faculdade de Ciências Sociais - FCS (RG) Publicador: Universidade Federal de Goiás; Brasil; UFG; Programa de Pós-graduação em Sociologia (FCS); Faculdade de Ciências Sociais - FCS (RG)
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: application/pdf
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.74%
This research aims to conduct a study on the health of the teaching work. We seek to understand the relationships that can be established between the organization of work and psychological distress. To reveal certain sufferings which actually have been neglected so far in studies on work, we try to analyze what, in their confrontation with the worker task, endangers their mental life and, above all, the experience of workers in relation to in relation to health and disease. It is studying the cases of teaching workers who were taken to the absenteeism (license or abandonment of the work). The contributions of the Christophe Dejours about the analysis of the pleasure, suffering and work, the psychological and social processes that affect on individuals and organizations are guiding this study. From the research and ideas of Christophe Dejours constitutes a branch of research, the psychodynamics of work. Teaching work became major concentration points of pressure on the worker. Besides his teaching duties, teachers should worry about your career, your security and your salary. Are overworked professionals who have little time to invest in their training and professional achievement. The absenteeism rates are increasing and that the imbalance caused by the organization of work has on the health of workers. We conducted semi-structured interviews with teachers of basic education. Our fieldwork was conducted in two public schools in Goiania. Collect narratives about the practice of teaching activity. The analysis of the narrative was drawn from the concepts of psychodynamic work; Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de Goiás - FAPEG; Esta pesquisa tem como objetivo realizar um estudo sobre a saúde do trabalhador docente. Procuramos entender as relações que podem se estabelecer entre a organização do trabalho e o sofrimento psíquico. Para revelar certos sofrimentos que...

Avan?os e desafios na implementa??o da Pol?tica de Aten??o ? Sa?de e Seguran?a do Trabalho do Servidor P?blico Federal em institui??es dos Vales do Jequitinhonha e Mucuri

Nunes, V?nia Maria Fernandes
Fonte: UFVJM Publicador: UFVJM
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.74%
?rea de concentra??o: Multidisciplinar.; ABSTRACT The aim of the current study was to verify the implementation of the Policy of Attention to the Health and Safety of Work of Federal Workers (PASS) in public agencies referenced to the SIASS Universidade Federal dos Vales do Jequitinhonha e Mucuri (UFVJM) and other federal institutions located in cities that host UFVJM, as well as one of the campuses of CEFET/MG and the INSS agencies in Diamantina and Te?filo Otoni. A descriptive transversal study was done with 205 individuals (201 active public servants and four human resource managers) which, in regard to the public servants, had the following aims: to find out about demands related to healthcare plans; to characterize the plans as to absenteeism/illness or on-the-job accidents and, further, to examine issues of unwholesomeness and danger in the workplace; and lastly, to verify awareness of these plans in relation to proposed PASS actions already introduced into the abovementioned public agencies. Together with human resource directors, the study sought to identify the difficulties faced in implementing PASS proposals. This study demonstrates the need to establish channels of communication in order to keep public servants updated and involved in regard to any actions proposed by PASS. It also points out the importance of supplementary health benefits and of being aware of the quality of the healthcare plans and any proposed changes to them. Furthermore...

Recruiting, Retaining, and Retraining Secondary School Teachers and Principals in Sub-Saharan Africa

Mulkeen, Aidan; Chapman, David W.; DeJaeghere, Joan G.; Leu, Elizabeth
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.74%
This working paper is based on country case studies of Ethiopia, Ghana, Guinea, Madagascar, Tanzania, and Uganda, and an extensive literature review. In many parts of Africa, the demand for secondary teachers substantially exceeds the supply, due to factors such as secondary teacher attrition, bottlenecks in the teacher preparation system, and perceived unattractive conditions of service. Few countries have strong policies, strategies, and programs for recruiting able secondary school graduates to secondary teaching. The paper suggests several critical and promising areas for improvement in the quality of secondary teachers through new approaches to recruitment; pre-service and in-service teacher development; and improvements in the deployment, utilization, compensation, and conditions of service for teachers.

A Comparative Analysis of School-Based Management in Central America

Di Gropello, Emanuela
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.74%
El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua introduced education decentralization reforms, including school-based management (SBM) in some schools. As applied in Central America, (SBM) is a decentralization mechanism that shifts certain decision-making powers to the school level, emphasizing the role of community, and parental management in school affairs. The SBM programs aim to increase enrollments, efficiency, and parental and local community participation. Greater participations are also seen as a means to achieve other goals. In three cases-EDUCO (El Salvador), PRONADE (Guatemala), and PROHECO (Honduras)-the main objective is increasing enrollment in isolated rural areas affected by conflict, poverty, or natural disasters. The School Autonomy Program in Nicaragua aims to increase operational efficiency, by giving voice to parents and civil society on educational issues. The note discusses two key questions that arise: What effect have the reforms had on community empowerment, and educational outcomes? What can be learned by comparing the circumstances...

Equity in Public Services in Tanzania and Uganda

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.74%
The context of this note is the concern in both Uganda and Tanzania that the distribution of public servants in both countries has been uneven, leading to inequity in the delivery of public services, with lower quality services linked to persistent poverty in certain underserved or hard-to-reach and stay (HTRS) areas. The note looks in detail at the nature of the problem as it affects education and health services, assesses measures already in place to tackle inequity, and makes recommendations to address the problem in the immediate as well as the long-term. In focus in this note are those areas that suffer from having far below average numbers of public servants, and consequently far below average public services. In Tanzania such areas are more commonly referred to as under-served and again additional resources have been allocated to them. Governments have so far responded with relatively conventional measures, such as financial incentives for staff and improved living conditions. While both of these are important...

Transport Against HIV/AIDS : Synthesis of Experience and Best Practice Guidelines

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.74%
The transport sector is especially vulnerable to HIV/AIDS. Transport workers including long distance truck drivers, seafarers, airline crews and infrastructure construction workers spend long periods of time away from home, often endure harsh working conditions, and may engage in unsafe behavior that can lead to infection. Their mobility makes it difficult to access health information and treatment, or to maintain drug regimen. Transport hubs and construction sites are often considered hot spots due to the influx and interaction that take place among the mobile workers. Furthermore, the sector works as a vector for HIV spread as the opening of new roads connects low and high prevalence areas. The World Bank transport group has been proactively mainstreaming HIV response by assisting client governments to design and implement sector-level interventions. Programs are most developed in the highest prevalence areas, initially in Sub-Sahara Africa and now also in Asia. Support to the sector includes organizing training events to increase staff awareness and knowledge...