Página 12 dos resultados de 53723 itens digitais encontrados em 0.034 segundos

Computational Phenotyping of Two-Person Interactions Reveals Differential Neural Response to Depth-of-Thought

Xiang, Ting; Ray, Debajyoti; Lohrenz, Terry; Dayan, Peter; Montague, P. Read
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.21%
Reciprocating exchange with other humans requires individuals to infer the intentions of their partners. Despite the importance of this ability in healthy cognition and its impact in disease, the dimensions employed and computations involved in such inferences are not clear. We used a computational theory-of-mind model to classify styles of interaction in 195 pairs of subjects playing a multi-round economic exchange game. This classification produces an estimate of a subject's depth-of-thought in the game (low, medium, high), a parameter that governs the richness of the models they build of their partner. Subjects in each category showed distinct neural correlates of learning signals associated with different depths-of-thought. The model also detected differences in depth-of-thought between two groups of healthy subjects: one playing patients with psychiatric disease and the other playing healthy controls. The neural response categories identified by this computational characterization of theory-of-mind may yield objective biomarkers useful in the identification and characterization of pathologies that perturb the capacity to model and interact with other humans.

OBESSIVE COMPULSIVE BEHAVIOURS—A THERAPEUTIC STUDY WITH THOUGHT STOPPING PROCEDURE

Nammalvar, N.; Rao, A. Venkoba
Fonte: Medknow Publications Publicador: Medknow Publications
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //1983 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.21%
In a Cross over design, the therapeutic value of thought-stopping technique in Obsessive Compulsive behaviour was examined by comparing its effect to that of progressive muscular relaxation. A group of 17 individuals with obsessive compulsive behaviours patterns served as study group. The measure of therapeutic change include frequency of obsession, Taylor's Manifest Anxiety scale, Beck's inventory for Depression. Distress rating and Fear survey schedule. The results showed marked improvement in 11 individuals and minimal improvement in 3 and no change in the remaining 3 individuals. Both relaxation and as thought stopping effected changes in the indices of therapeutic change. However, thought stopping was found to be significantly more effective. The study also discusses some follow-up data as well as the theoretical issues of obsessional behaviour.

Attentional Control and Suppressing Negative Thought Intrusions in Pathological Worry

Fox, Elaine; Dutton, Kevin; Yates, Alan; Georgiou, George A.; Mouchlianitis, Elias
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/07/2015 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.21%
Adaptive behavior relies on the ability to effectively and efficiently ignore irrelevant information, an important component of attentional control. The current research found that fundamental difficulties in ignoring irrelevant material are related to dispositional differences in trait propensity to worry, suggesting a core deficit in attentional control in high worriers. The degree of deficit in attentional control correlated with the degree of difficulty in suppressing negative thought intrusions in a worry assessment task. A cognitive training procedure utilizing a flanker task was used in an attempt to improve attentional control. Although the cognitive training was largely ineffective, improvements in attentional control were associated with improvements in the ability to suppress worry-related thought intrusions. Across two studies, the findings indicate that the inability to control worry-related negative thought intrusions is associated with a general deficiency in attentional control.

Orbitofrontal volume deficit in schizophrenia and thought disorder

Nakamura, Motoaki; Nestor, Paul G.; Levitt, James J.; Cohen, Adam S.; Kawashima, Toshiro; Shenton, Martha E.; McCarley, Robert W.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.21%
Orbitofrontal Cortex (OFC) structural abnormality in schizophrenia has not been well characterized, probably due to marked anatomical variability and lack of consistent definitions. We previously reported OFC sulcogyral pattern alteration and its associations with social disturbance in schizophrenia, but OFC volume associations with psychopathology and cognition have not been investigated. We compared chronically treated schizophrenia patients with healthy control (HC) subjects, using a novel, reliable parcellation of OFC subregions and their association with cognition, especially the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT), and with schizophrenic psychopathology including thought disorder. Twenty-four patients with schizophrenia and 25 age-matched HC subjects underwent MRI. OFC Regions of Interest (ROI) were manually delineated according to anatomical boundaries: Gyrus Rectus (GR); Middle Orbital Gyrus (MiOG); and Lateral Orbital Gyrus (LOG). The OFC sulcogyral pattern was also classified. Additionally, MiOG probability maps were created and compared between groups in a voxel-wise manner. Both groups underwent cognitive evaluations using the IGT, Wisconsin Card SortingTest, and Trail Making Test (TMT). An 11% bilaterally smaller MiOG volume was observed in schizophrenia...

A short insight about Thought experiment in Modern Physics

Cucic, Dragoljub A.
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 13/12/2008
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.21%
Thought experiment is an apparition in a modern Science, which is in last 100 Years took sweep. Work is based at the aspect of Physics, because and the writer is from Physics. Manners to study thought experiments are multiple, and this work is only one aspect in that complex of feasibility. About real character of thought experiment will be made conclusion when analyze, like this attempt, in other Sciences.; Comment: 22 pages, 4 figures, 1 table

Coolhunting for the World's Thought Leaders

Frick, Karin; Guertler, Detlef; Gloor, Peter A.
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 05/08/2013
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.21%
Which thinkers are we guided by? A novel "Thought Leader Map" shows the select group of people with real influence who are setting the trends in the market for ideas. The influencers in philosophy, sociology, economics, and the "hard sciences" have been identified by a Delphi process, asking 50 thought leaders to name their peers. The importance of the influencers is calculated by constructing a co-occurrence network in the Blogosphere. Our main insight is that the era of the great authorities seems to be over. Major thought leaders are rare - the picture is composed of many specialists.; Comment: Presented at COINs13 Conference, Chile, 2013 (arxiv:1308.1028)

A thought to illustrate the uncertainty principle on the base of Otto-Wiener's experiment

Das, Tapas
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 06/10/2014
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.21%
In this short paper a new thought experiment has been introduced to illustrate the famous Heisenberg's uncertainty principle based on Otto-Wiener's experiment (1890) associated with standing light waves. This illustration is quite easy as well as far more realizing than all other thought experiments generally found in textbooks. In this work seeding of quantum nature of light has been done with the Otto-Wiener's experiment. May be this new thought experiment will help the students to understand the Heisenberg's principle in a better way and also enhance their interest of learning quantum mechanics from the beginning of their course.; Comment: 4 pages, 2 figures

Creative Thought as a nonDarwinian Evolutionary Process

Gabora, Liane
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.21%
Selection theory requires multiple, distinct, simultaneously-actualized states. In cognition, each thought or cognitive state changes the 'selection pressure' against which the next is evaluated; they are not simultaneously selected amongst. Creative thought is more a matter of honing in a vague idea through redescribing successive iterations of it from different real or imagined perspectives; in other words, actualizing potential through exposure to different contexts. It has been proven that the mathematical description of contextual change of state introduces a non-Kolmogorovian probability distribution, and a classical formalism such as selection theory cannot be used. This paper argues that creative thought evolves not through a Darwinian process, but a process of context-driven actualization of potential.; Comment: 22 pages

Skip-Thought Memory Networks

Caballero, Ethan
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.21%
Question Answering (QA) is fundamental to natural language processing in that most nlp problems can be phrased as QA (Kumar et al., 2015). Current weakly supervised memory network models that have been proposed so far struggle at answering questions that involve relations among multiple entities (such as facebook's bAbi qa5-three-arg-relations in (Weston et al., 2015)). To address this problem of learning multi-argument multi-hop semantic relations for the purpose of QA, we propose a method that combines the jointly learned long-term read-write memory and attentive inference components of end-to-end memory networks (MemN2N) (Sukhbaatar et al., 2015) with distributed sentence vector representations encoded by a Skip-Thought model (Kiros et al., 2015). This choice to append Skip-Thought Vectors to the existing MemN2N framework is motivated by the fact that Skip-Thought Vectors have been shown to accurately model multi-argument semantic relations (Kiros et al., 2015).; Comment: submitted as conference paper for ICLR 2016

Xenophon and the Nazis: A case study in the politicization of Greek thought through educational propaganda

Roche, Helen
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Article; accepted version
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.21%
This is the author accepted manuscript. It is currently under an indefinite embargo pending publication by Oxford University Press.; In National Socialist Germany, radical reinterpretations of Classical texts were always on the agenda. The Reich Education Ministry decreed unequivocally that only those ancient texts which could serve the regime?s new ?national-political? education should be taught in schools, and many school-teachers were all too eager to follow this prime directive. This article will consider a number of articles on Xenophon published in the Nazi Teachers? League (NSLB) Classics journal, Die Alten Sprachen, in order to illuminate the ways in which aspects of Xenophon?s thought could become ?politicized?. Thus, one article takes selected passages from Xenophon?s Hellenica and weaves them into a treatise on ancient and modern political theory, condemning individualism and providing a systematic indictment of the dangers of democracy, while another elevates aspects of the Spartan constitution to the status of contemporary political principles, placing Sparta (rather than Athens) at the centre of the German political imagination. As a whole, the article seeks to reveal the contingency of political analysis based on the ancient world...

RELAÇÃO SOCIEDADE-NATUREZA NO PENSAMENTO GEOGRÁFICO: REFLEXÕES EPISTEMOLÓGICAS; SOCIETY NATURE RELATION IN GEOGRAPHICAL THOUGHT: EPISTEMOLOGICAL REFLECTIONS

Rodrigues, Jovenildo Cardoso; Rodrigues, Jondison Cardoso
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Filosofia, Letras e Ciências Humanas Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Filosofia, Letras e Ciências Humanas
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Artigo Avaliado pelos Pares Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 10/07/2014 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.21%
This work makes epistemological considerations about the discussion of the relationship between society and nature in geographic thought. For this purpose, it takes to the theoretical-epistemological classical matrices, the Kantian, Hegelian and Marxist concepts as well as the dialogue with prospects of contemporary geographic thought of Quaini, Vitte and Moreira, while analytical ability to think object of study of geography and "nature" as a mediation procedural element whose reflective capability is being continually redefined as a result of the movement of reality transformation. Within this perspective, the nature category, while aggregation in whole, will be held from the gendering of nature as a concept and as a product of human achievement over time and space. The particularities inherent in the movement of transformation and redefinition of the term nature in Geography appears as a result of "epistemic shock" between old and new perspectives of thought that seek, on the one hand, to conceive "interpretive devices" to apply it to the real and also, to examine the diversity of the real in its multiple determinations established along the space-time and relational motion between historicity and praxis.; Este ensaio busca tecer considerações epistemológicas acerca do debate da relação sociedade-natureza no pensamento geográfico. Para tanto...

Engajamento e sacrifício o pensamento estético de Mário de Andrade; Engagement and Sacrifice the Aesthetic Thought of Mário de Andrade

Fragelli, Pedro
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Instituto de Estudos Brasileiros Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Instituto de Estudos Brasileiros
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 31/12/2013 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.21%
Mário de Andrade conceived and organized his whole work as a means of social praxis. He therefore developed a profound and dramatic thought about the difficult relation between art and society in Brazil. Especially from 1930, when the Brazilian ideological life became strongly politicized, Mário seeks to develop an aesthetic thought centered on the idea of art’s social function, in order to promote forms of political intervention through culture. Mário however could not overcome in theory the idea that the aesthetic and the political elements of artworks contradict one another. This article intends to expose the movement and paradoxes of the writer’s aesthetic thought,as well as those of the solution that Mário finds for his torturous dilemmas – that is, sacrifice. Mário’s ideas are studied here in their relations with history, especially with the process – carried out by the State during the 1920s and the 1930s – of dismantling the incipient Brazilian labour movement, which started to organize class struggle in the country.; Mário de Andrade concebeu e organizou a totalidade de sua obra como uma forma de práxis social. Por isso mesmo, realizou uma reflexão profunda e dramática sobre a difícil relação entre arte e sociedade no Brasil. Sobretudo a partir de 1930...

Ethics, economics and justice: social choice in the thought of Sen and Smith; Ética, economia e justiça: a escolha social no pensamento de Sen e Smith

Araujo, Luiz Bernardo Leite; Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ); Creder, Fábio dos Santos; Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ)
Fonte: UFPR Publicador: UFPR
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 27/05/2013 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.21%
This article aims to examine Adam Smith’s deep and broad influence on the thought of Amartya Sen, especially concerning the issue of social justice that pervades the writings of both authors. First, we will analyze Sen’s revision of the work of Smith to refute the interpretation still prevalent, that makes use of certain excerpts from The Wealth of Nations as the main reference in defending the deregulation of markets and in exempting the economic thought from any consideration of moral values, demonstrating how Sen draws on Smith’s ideas to explain the impoverishment of economics when it departs from ethics. Then, we will consider the overwhelming influence of the Smithian thought on Sen’s criticism of the theory of rational choice through his distinctive formulation of the theory of social choice, whose importance was rightly recognized, earning him the Nobel Prize in Economics in 1998.; Neste artigo pretendemos examinar a profunda e abrangente influência exercida pela obra de Adam Smith sobre o pensamento de Amartya Sen, especialmente no que concerne ao tema da justiça social, que permeia os escritos de ambos os autores. Primeiramente analisaremos a revisão da obra de Smith, promovida por Sen, para refutar a interpretação...

UMA HISTÓRIA DA IDÉIA DE UTOPIA: O REAL E O IMAGINÁRIO NO PENSAMENTO POLÍTICO DE THOMAS MORUS

Lopes, Marcos Antônio
Fonte: UFPR Publicador: UFPR
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 17/01/2005 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.21%
Morus não é o criador do pensamento político utópico, mas é o teórico que fez circular o ideal utópico, em sua corrente mais influente. Foi ele quem criou a palavra Utopia. Morus foi o primeiro a criticar a ordem social orientada pela exploração do trabalho e pela força do dinheiro. Ele é crítico da agricultura intensiva que leva à desestruturação das comunidades agrárias. Como Maquiavel, ele transita pela esfera do poder, uma esfera de ligações perigosas. De um modo diferente, ele tentou também separar a ética da política. Este artigo analisa estes aspectos de seu pensamento político. A history of the idea of utopia: reality and imagination in the political thought of Thomas More Abstract Morus is not the creator of the utopian political thought, but it is the theoretical that makes to circulate the utopian ideal, in its more important version. It went him who created to word Utopia. Morus was the first to criticize the social order guided by the exploration of the work and for force of the money. He is critical of the intensive agriculture that upside down the agrarian communities. As Maquiavel, he walk for the sphere of the power, a sphere of dangerous connections. In a different way, he also tried to separate the ethical of the politics. This article analysis these aspects of its political thought.

REFLECTIONS ON THE GEOGRAPHICAL THOUGHT AND THE SEARCH OF A METHODOLOGY OF WORK IN THE PERCEPTION OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL GEOGRAPHY; REFLEXÕES SOBRE O PENSAMENTO GEOGRÁFICO E A BUSCA DE UMA METODOLOGIA DE TRABALHO NA PERCEPÇÃO DA GEOGRAFIA AMBIENTAL

Andrade, Aparecido Ribeiro de
Fonte: UFPR Publicador: UFPR
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Formato: application/pdf; application/pdf
Publicado em 26/11/2009 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.21%
The geography always looked for its legitimacy through the discussion among the researchers of the area. The construction of its theoretical and methodological base is a continuous controversial theme among these researchers. The evolution of the Geographical thought always presented critics to the applied methods and defended the necessary paradigmatic cuts. This happened with the Traditional Geography, the Quantitative Geography, the New Geography and it is happening with the Critical Geography, as a way to contribute in the search of an object and appropriate scientific aim. In this conceptual search, the Environmental Geography intends to rescue methods, methodologies and techniques of schools and currents of the geographical thought to accomplish an evaluation integration geographical, theory which is defended by several schools, but not very applied. The Sistema Socioambiental Urbano (SAU) answers part of these inquietudes, it being very useful in researches that demonstrate the necessary relationship of the society with the nature in an unitary and not dissociated way. The present work has a porpoise of making a general panorama of the evolution of the geographical thought mainly on the methods and methodologies of investigation of the landscape...

O pensamento convergente, o pensamento divergente e a formação de professores de ciências e Matemática; The convergent thought, the divergent thought and the science and mathematics teachers formation

Arruda, Sergio de Mello; UEL - Párana; Ueno, Michele Hidemi; UEL - Párana; Guizellini, Alessandra; UEL - Párana; Passos, Marinez Meneghello; Martins, João Batista; UEL - Paraná
Fonte: Imprensa Universitária - UFSC Publicador: Imprensa Universitária - UFSC
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/01/2005 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.21%
Nesse trabalho, procuramos entender algumas dificuldades inerentes à profissão de professor de Ciências e Matemática, como resultado de tensões existentes entre uma tendência ao pensamento convergente, que vai moldando o modo de pensamento do futuro professor ao longo de sua formação básica em ciências, em especial nas áreas mencionadas acima e um modo de pensar divergente, desenvolvido a partir da prática de sala de aula, das expectativas e conflitos gerados nos relacionamentos entre alunos e professores, das angústias provocadas no interior das instituições. Essa maneira de entender a função docente foi inspirada nas idéias do filósofo e historiador da ciência Thomas Kuhn, que via o progresso científico como uma alternância entre momentos em que o cientista atua a partir de consensos estabelecidos em torno de um paradigma único (ciência normal) e momentos onde a pesquisa se caracteriza pelo debate dos fundamentos até o estabelecimento de novo consenso (revolução científica). No sentido de dar alguma articulação às idéias colocadas acima, fazemos referência a alguns dados de pesquisas realizadas com futuros e atuais professores nas áreas mencionadas acima.; In this work we try to understand some difficulties of being Science and Mathematics teacher...

Book review: the history of ancient Chinese economic thought edited by Cheng Lin, Terry Peach and Wang Fang

Gao, Pei
Fonte: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science Publicador: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 30/05/2014 EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.21%
This volume comprises twelve papers written by Chinese scholars on various aspects of the history of ancient Chinese economic thought, with the authors aiming to show that ancient Chinese thought has at least as much to offer to the historian as ancient Western thought. The first such volume of papers to be translated into English, this collection will challenge the most experienced of scholars in economics and Chinese studies. Pei Gao applauds the efforts of the authors, but calls for a more accessible contribution to the literature.

History, method, and pluralism: A re-interpretation of Isaiah Berlin's political thought.

Yeh, Hao
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis
Tipo: Thesis; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2006 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.21%
In the literature on Berlin to date, two broad approaches to study his political thought can be detected. The first is the piecemeal approach, which tends to single out an element of Berlin's thought (for example, his distinction between negative liberty and positive liberty) for exposition or criticism, leaving other elements unaccounted. And the second is the holistic approach, which pays attention to the overall structure of Berlin's thought as a whole, in particular the relation between his defence for negative liberty and pluralism. This thesis is to defend the holistic approach against the piecemeal approach, but its interpretation will differ from the two representative readings, offered by Claude J. Gallipeau and John Gray, of this approach. By focusing on the relation between Berlin's historical methodology and his political arguments, this thesis argues that the doctrine of value-pluralism should be understood as Berlin's vision of the world, his empathetic approach to understanding a methodological strategy to transcend cultural difference, and his engagement with the history of ideas an enterprise to enlarge his readers' vision of human possibility so that they can come to see the fact that their own chosen forms of life are relatively valid. It begins with a reconstruction of Berlin's methodology...

The role of philosophy and hierarchy in Friedrich Nietzsche's political thought.

Donaldson, Ian Linton
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis
Tipo: Thesis; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2000 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.21%
I argue that Friedrich Nietzsche provides us with a political philosophy that deserves serious consideration as a uniquely anti-democratic position within the canon of modern political theory. Beyond recent attempts to democratise Nietzsche's thoughts on power and self-creation, I provide an analysis of Nietzsche's anti-democratic impulse that demonstrates how the elements of hierarchy and philosophy form the core of an antidemocratic and anti-universalist political project in Nietzsche's mature thought. Hitherto, many of Nietzsche's interpreters have assumed that his thought yields no unambiguous political philosophy because he fails to present his ideas in a systematic way. Yet it may be argued that Nietzsche's political thought does reveal a significant, if skeletal, structure that is built upon consistent ideas, however unsystematically presented. The overall aim of this thesis is to determine the best way to characterize what is uniquely political in Nietzsche. I claim that the political in Nietzsche has to do with the relationship between politics as hierarchy and philosophy as independent value creation. I present my thesis in three parts. Firstly, I develop my argument within a critique of recent democratic interpretations of Nietzsche. Secondly...

The Logos between psychology, ontology, and Divinity: Fundamental aspects of the concept of Logos in the early thought of Slavoj Žižek

Simut,Corneliu C.
Fonte: HTS Theological Studies Publicador: HTS Theological Studies
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.21%
Slavoj Žižek's philosophy spans over more than three decades, which is confirmed by the numerous books he published since the late 1980s. Since his thinking about the idea of logos is no exception, this article focuses on what can be termed Žižek's early philosophy, and especially that depicted in his The sublime object of ideology (1989) and The metastases of enjoyment (1994). Whilst the former underlines the psychological aspects of the logos, the latter focuses more on theories about being, as well as on theological considerations. This is why, three uses of the logos were identified in Žižek's thought: psychological, ontological and theological, all three with a clear focus on the human being as conceived in modern thought, which for Žižek seems to be utterly opposed to traditional thinking about man and his relationship with God. It is clear from Žižek that whilst the notion of God does appear in this thought, it only refers to the human being which encapsulates the essence of Žižek's philosophy to the point that the logos itself is a fundamental feature of the human being's material existence in the natural world. Regardless of whether the logos points to psychology...