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Improving asthma during pregnancy with dietary antioxidants: the current evidence

Grieger, J.; Wood, L.; Clifton, V.
Fonte: MDPI Publicador: MDPI
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2013 EN
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The complication of asthma during pregnancy is associated with a number of poor outcomes for the mother and fetus. This may be partially driven by increased oxidative stress induced by the combination of asthma and pregnancy. Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the airways associated with systemic inflammation and oxidative stress, which contributes to worsening asthma symptoms. Pregnancy alone also intensifies oxidative stress through the systemic generation of excess reactive oxidative species (ROS). Antioxidants combat the damaging effects of ROS; yet antioxidant defenses are reduced in asthma. Diet and nutrition have been postulated as potential factors to combat the damaging effects of asthma. In particular, dietary antioxidants may play a role in alleviating the heightened oxidative stress in asthma. Although there are some observational and interventional studies that have shown protective effects of antioxidants in asthma, assessment of antioxidants in pregnancy are limited and there are no antioxidant intervention studies in asthmatic pregnancies on asthma outcomes. The aims of this paper are to (i) review the relationships between oxidative stress and dietary antioxidants in adults with asthma and asthma during pregnancy...

Obesity affects spontaneous pregnancy chances in subfertile, ovulatory women

van der Steeg, J.; Steures, P.; Eijkemans, M.; Habbema, J.; Hompes, P.; Burggraaff, J.; Oosterhuis, G.; Bossuyt, P.; van der Veen, F.; Mol, B.
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2008 EN
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BACKGROUND Obesity is increasing rapidly among women all over the world. Obesity is a known risk factor for subfertility due to anovulation, but it is unknown whether obesity also affects spontaneous pregnancy chances in subfertile, ovulatory women. METHODS We evaluated whether obesity affected the chance of a spontaneous pregnancy in a prospectively assembled cohort of 3029 consecutive subfertile couples. Women had to be ovulatory and had to have at least one patent tube, whereas men had to have a normal semen analysis. Time to spontaneous ongoing pregnancy within 12 months was the primary endpoint. RESULTS The probability of a spontaneous pregnancy declined linearly with a body mass index (BMI) over 29 kg/m2. Corrected for possible related factors, women with a high BMI had a 4% lower pregnancy rate per kg/m2 increase [hazard ratio: 0.96 (95% CI 0.91–0.99)]. CONCLUSIONS These results indicate that obesity is associated with lower pregnancy rates in subfertile ovulatory women.; Jan Willem van der Steeg, Pieternel Steures, Marinus J.C. Eijkemans, J. Dik F. Habbema, Peter G.A. Hompes, Jan M. Burggraaff, G. Jur E. Oosterhuis, Patrick M.M. Bossuyt, Fulco van der Veen and Ben W.J. Mol; First published online: December 11, 2007

Systematic review and metaanalysis on nonclassic cardiovascular biomarkers after hypertensive pregnancy disorders

Visser, S.; Hermes, W.; Ket, J.C.F.; Otten, R.H.J.; Van Pampus, M.G.; Bloemenkamp, K.W.M.; Franx, A.; Mol, B.W.; De Groot, C.J.M.
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.48%
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate which nonclassic cardiovascular biomarkers are associated with persistent endothelial dysfunction after pregnancy in women with a history of hypertensive pregnancy disorders compared with women with uncomplicated pregnancies. STUDY DESIGN: This was a systematic review and metaanalysis of observational studies. A search was performed in PubMed, Embase, Cochrane, and Cinahl including articles from inception to Feb. 27, 2013. Included were cohort studies and case-control studies. Cases were women with a history of hypertension in pregnancy, control subjects were women with a history of uncomplicated pregnancies. Of the 3136 found, 21 studies on 16 nonclassic cardiovascular biomarkers are described in this review; 12 studies on 5 biomarkers were included in the metaanalysis. RESULTS: Women with a history of hypertensive pregnancy disorders had a higher homocysteine level compared with women with a history of uncomplicated pregnancies (5 studies; pooled mean difference, 0.77 ng/mL; 95% confidence interval, 0.27-1.26; P < .01). For the other nonclassic cardiovascular biomarkers including markers in areas of inflammation, thrombosis, and angiogenesis, we found no significant differences. CONCLUSION: This review and metaanalysis showed that women with a history of hypertensive pregnancy disorders have higher homocysteine levels compared with women with a history of uncomplicated pregnancies. These data suggest persistent endothelial alteration after pregnancies complicated by hypertensive disorders.; Sanne Visser...

Perinatal outcomes following maternal asthma and cigarette smoking during pregnancy

Hodyl, N.A.; Stark, M.J.; Scheil, W.; Grzeskowiak, L.E.; Clifton, V.L.
Fonte: European Respiratory Society Publicador: European Respiratory Society
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2014 EN
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Does cigarette smoking in pregnancy explain the increased risk of adverse perinatal outcomes that occur with maternal asthma or does it compound the effect? Using population based birth records, a retrospective analysis was conducted of all singleton pregnancies in South Australia over 10 years (1999–2008; n=172 305), examining maternal asthma, cigarette smoking and quantity of smoking to estimate odds ratios. Compared with nonasthmatic females who did not smoke during pregnancy, both asthmatic females who smoked and those who did not smoke during pregnancy had a significantly increased risk of gestational diabetes, antepartum haemorrhage, polyhydramnios, premature rupture of membranes, emergency Caesarean section, and the child being small for gestational age and having congenital abnormalities. These associations suggest that asthma, independently of maternal smoking, increases the risk of these adverse perinatal outcomes. Maternal smoking was itself associated with an increased risk of a number of poor neonatal outcomes, with a dose–response relationship observed. Notably, maternal asthma combined with cigarette smoking significantly increased the risk of preterm birth and urinary tract infections to a greater degree than with either exposure alone. Maternal asthma and cigarette smoking during pregnancy are both independently associated with adverse perinatal outcomes and...

Development of an experimental model of maternal allergic asthma during pregnancy

Clifton, V.L.; Moss, T.J.; Wooldridge, A.L.; Gatford, K.L.; Liravi, B.; Kim, D.; Muhlhausler, B.S.; Morrison, J.L.; Davies, A.; De Matteo, R.; Wallace, M.J.; Bischof, R.J.
Fonte: Wiley Publicador: Wiley
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2015 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.48%
Maternal asthma during pregnancy adversely affects pregnancy outcomes but identification of the cause/s, and the ability to evaluate interventions, is limited by the lack of an appropriate animal model. We therefore aimed to characterise maternal lung and cardiovascular responses and fetal-placental growth and lung surfactant levels in a sheep model of allergic asthma. Immune and airway functions were studied in singleton-bearing ewes, either sensitised before pregnancy to house dust mite (HDM, allergic, n = 7) or non-allergic (control, n = 5), and subjected to repeated airway challenges with HDM (allergic group) or saline (control group) throughout gestation. Maternal lung, fetal and placental phenotypes were characterised at 140 ± 1 d gestational age (term, ∼147 d). The eosinophil influx into lungs was greater after HDM challenge in allergic ewes than after saline challenge in control ewes before mating and in late gestation. Airway resistance increased throughout pregnancy in allergic but not control ewes, consistent with increased airway smooth muscle in allergic ewes. Maternal allergic asthma decreased relative fetal weight (-12%) and altered placental phenotype to a more mature form. Expression of surfactant protein B mRNA was 48% lower in fetuses from allergic ewes than controls...

Brain somatostatinergic system at late pregnancy, parturition and the early postpartum period in the rat

Barrios Sabador, Vicente; Puebla Jiménez, Lilian; Rodríguez Sánchez, María Nelly; Arilla Ferreiro, Eduardo
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
ENG
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During pregnancy and postpartum rats experience a wide varietv of behavioural changes. Since the soma-tostatinergic system has been iraplicated in the control of some of these changes, the present study examined somatostatin (SS) content and specific binding in the frontoparietal cortex and hippocampus of non-pregnant. pregnant (17 to 18 days), parturition and postpartum (10 and 30 days) rats as well as in ovariectomized rats which were or were not treated with estradiol valerianate. The content of somatostatin-like inimunoreactivity (SSLI) was increased at 17 days of pregnancy in frontoparietal cortex and decreased at parturition and 10 days postpartum in that región and the hippocampus under study when compared with SSLI levels in non-pregnant rats. At 30 days postpartum the SSLI content returned to non-pregnant valúes in both brain regions. Scatchard analysis showed that the decrease in [125I]Tyru-SS binding observed at 17 days of pregnancy in the frontoparietal cortex was due to the decrease in the number of SS receptors. In contrast, on the dav of delivery the number of SS receptors in the same brain región increased. The affinity of the SS receptors was consistently unchanged in pregnant and non-pregnant rats in both regions. At 10 days postpartum the valué of specific binding of the tracer to SS receptors in the frontoparietal cortex was not significantly different from that in the non-pregnant rats...

Study protocol: differential effects of diet and physical activity based interventions in pregnancy on maternal and fetal outcomes-individual patient data (IPD) meta-analysis and health economic evaluation

Ruifrok, A.E.; Rogozinska, E.; Van Poppel, M.N.M.; Rayanagoudar, G.; Kerry, S.; de Groot, C.J.M.; Yeo, S.; Molyneaux, E.; McAuliffe, F.M.; Poston, L.; Roberts, T.; Riley, R.D.; Coomarasamy, A.; Khan, K.; Mol, B.W.; Thangaratinam, S.; van Poppel, M.; Carba
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2014 EN
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BACKGROUND: Pregnant women who gain excess weight are at risk of complications during pregnancy and in the long term. Interventions based on diet and physical activity minimise gestational weight gain with varied effect on clinical outcomes. The effect of interventions on varied groups of women based on body mass index, age, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, parity, and underlying medical conditions is not clear. Our individual patient data (IPD) meta-analysis of randomised trials will assess the differential effect of diet- and physical activity-based interventions on maternal weight gain and pregnancy outcomes in clinically relevant subgroups of women. METHODS/DESIGN: Randomised trials on diet and physical activity in pregnancy will be identified by searching the following databases: MEDLINE, EMBASE, BIOSIS, LILACS, Pascal, Science Citation Index, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects, and Health Technology Assessment Database. Primary researchers of the identified trials are invited to join the International Weight Management in Pregnancy Collaborative Network and share their individual patient data. We will reanalyse each study separately and confirm the findings with the original authors. Then...

Magnesium supplementation in pregnancy

Makrides, M.; Crowther, C.
Fonte: Update Software Ltd Publicador: Update Software Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2000 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
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BACKGROUND: Many women, especially those from disadvantaged backgrounds, have intakes of magnesium below recommended levels. Magnesium supplementation during pregnancy may be able to reduce fetal growth retardation and pre-eclampsia, and increase birthweight. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this review was to assess the effects of magnesium supplementation during pregnancy on maternal, neonatal and paediatric outcomes. SEARCH STRATEGY: We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group trials register. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised and quasi-randomised trials of dietary magnesium supplementation during pregnancy. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Suitability for inclusion and methodological quality were separately assessed by each reviewer. Data were independently extracted by two reviewers. MAIN RESULTS: Six trials involving 2637 women were included. Only one of these trials was judged to be of high quality. Compared with placebo, oral magnesium treatment from before the 25th week of gestation was associated with a lower incidence of preterm birth (odds ratio 0.71, 95% confidence interval 0.52 to 0.95). There was also less maternal hospitalisation during pregnancy, fewer cases of antepartum haemorrhage, a lower incidence of low birthweight and small for gestational age infants. Poor quality trials are likely to have resulted in a bias favouring magnesium supplementation. REVIEWER'S CONCLUSIONS: There is not enough high quality evidence to show that dietary magnesium supplementation during pregnancy is beneficial.; Maria Makrides...

Folate, Vitamin B12, Vitamin B6 and homocysteine: impact on pregnancy outcome

Furness, D.; Fenech, M.; Dekker, G.; Khong, T.; Roberts, C.; Hague, W.
Fonte: Wiley-Blackwell Publishing Ltd Publicador: Wiley-Blackwell Publishing Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2013 EN
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Good clinical practice recommends folic acid supplementation 1 month prior to pregnancy and during the first trimester to prevent congenital malformations. However, high rates of fetal growth and development in later pregnancy may increase the demand for folate. Folate and vitamins B12 and B6 are required for DNA synthesis and cell growth, and are involved in homocysteine metabolism. The primary aim of this study was to determine if maternal folate, vitamin B12, vitamin B6 and homocysteine concentrations at 18–20 weeks gestation are associated with subsequent adverse pregnancy outcomes, including pre-eclampsia and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). The secondary aim was to investigate maternal B vitamin concentrations with DNA damage markers in maternal lymphocytes. A prospective observational study was conducted at the Women's and Children's Hospital, Adelaide, South Australia. One hundred and thirty-seven subjects were identified prior to 20 weeks gestation as at high or low risk for subsequent adverse pregnancy outcome by senior obstetricians. Clinical status, dietary information, circulating micronutrients and genome damage biomarkers were assessed at 18–20 weeks gestation. Women who developed IUGR had reduced red blood cell (RBC) folate (P < 0.001) and increased plasma homocysteine concentrations (P < 0.001) compared with controls. Maternal DNA damage...

Review: The feto-placental unit, pregnancy pathology and impact on long term maternal health

Clifton, V.; Stark, M.; Osei-Kumah, A.; Hodyl, N.
Fonte: W B Saunders Co Ltd Publicador: W B Saunders Co Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2012 EN
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Pregnancy induces a number of alterations to maternal physiology to accommodate the increased demands made by the developing fetus and placenta. These alterations appear at least in part to be driven by products derived from the feto-placental unit, including microchimeric cells, as well as placental exosomes and microparticles, inducing changes to maternal physiology both during pregnancy and beyond. Further, increasing evidence suggests that some of these alterations are dependent on the sex of the fetus. Pre-eclampsia and asthma represent two common pregnancy complications that have provided valuable insight into how the feto-placental unit influences maternal physiology in a sex-specific manner. Pregnancy-induced alterations in maternal physiology may expose pre-existing subclinical pathologies and provide insight into future maternal health and disease. While most pregnancy-induced alterations to the maternal system are reversed following delivery, some can persist after parturition leading to cardiovascular, metabolic and autoimmune disease and increased risk of early mortality.; V.L. Clifton, M.J. Stark, A. Osei-Kumah and N.A. Hodyl

Pregnancy-related changes in tobacco, alcohol and cannabis use reported by antenatal patients at two public hospitals in South Australia

Hotham, E.; Ali, R.; White, J.; Robinson, J.
Fonte: Blackwell Publishing Asia Publicador: Blackwell Publishing Asia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2008 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.48%
Background: Australian substance use data do not demonstrate pregnancy-related changes or distinguish between pregnant and lactating women. Aims: To determine such changes by antenatal patients at two South Australian public hospitals accounting for 35% of the state's births. Methods: In 2005–2006, all first visit antenatal women at the two hospitals were asked by clinic staff to complete an anonymous, self-administered questionnaire prompting details of substance use, current and previous (while not pregnant or lactating). Results: Questionnaires were returned by 748 women, 34.4% of 2173 eligible in the study period. Women reported use at significantly lower rates than before pregnancy. Tobacco was most used in pregnancy (18.5%), followed by alcohol (11.8%) and cannabis (4.5%), with negligible use of other illicit substances. There was no significant difference in substance use related to trimester. Women with previous pregnancy losses were significantly more likely to use tobacco and alcohol. Younger women were more likely to use tobacco and cannabis, with no age-related differences in alcohol consumption. First pregnancy was the only factor independently associated with the likelihood of ceasing substance use when pregnant, but only in relation to alcohol. Conclusions: Women were less likely to use all substances when pregnant...

Misoprostol for induction of labour to terminate pregnancy in the second or third trimester for women with a fetal anomaly or after intrauterine fetal death

Dodd, J.; Crowther, C.
Fonte: Update Software Ltd Publicador: Update Software Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2010 EN
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Background A woman may need to give birth prior to the spontaneous onset of labour in situations where the fetus has died in utero (also called a stillbirth), or for the termination of pregnancy where the fetus, if born alive would not survive or would have a permanent handicap. Misoprostol is a prostaglandin medication that can be used to induce labour in these situations. Objectives To compare the benefits and harms of misoprostol to induce labour to terminate pregnancy in the second and third trimester for women with a fetal anomaly or after intrauterine fetal death when compared with other methods of induction of labour. Search strategy We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (November 2009). Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials comparing misoprostol with placebo or no treatment, or any other method of induction of labour, for women undergoing induction of labour to terminate pregnancy in the second and third trimester following an intrauterine fetal death or for fetal anomalies. Data collection and analysis Both authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. Main results We included 38 studies (3679 women). Nine studies included pregnancies after intrauterine deaths...

Maternal body size prior to pregnancy, gestational diabetes and weight gain: associations with insulin resistance in children at 9-10 years

Maftei, O.; Whitrow, M.J.; Davies, M.J.; Giles, L.C.; Owens, J.A.; Moore, V.M.
Fonte: Blackwell Publishing Publicador: Blackwell Publishing
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2015 EN
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36.48%
AIMS: To investigate whether maternal body size pre-pregnancy, gestational diabetes and weight gain are independently associated with subsequent insulin resistance in children; and to examine the potential mediating role of child's body size in any associations. METHODS: At 9-10 years, 443 children took part in a follow-up of a prospective cohort. Of those, 163 children elected to provide a fasting blood sample and child insulin resistance was estimated by homeostasis model assessment. Generalized linear models with log link function and Gaussian family were used to assess associations with antenatal exposures. Potential confounders were considered as well as the role of the child's size. RESULTS: Prior to pregnancy, 23% of mothers were overweight and another 17% obese. All women were screened for gestational diabetes, with 6% diagnosed. On average, women gained an estimated 14 kg during pregnancy. Gestational diabetes was positively associated with child insulin resistance. In addition, maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) was associated with child insulin resistance in a non-linear manner: a positive, progressive association was observed until BMI of 30 kg/m(2) was reached, but not thereafter. Estimated gestational weight gain was not associated with child insulin resistance. These findings were not accounted for by size of the child at birth or at 9-10 years. CONCLUSIONS: Maternal body size prior to pregnancy is positively associated with increases in child insulin resistance...

Associations Between Pregnancy-Related Complications, Work and Non-Work Physical Activity and Elevated Blood Pressure in Female Hospital Employees

van de Ven-Dantes, Jane
Fonte: Quens University Publicador: Quens University
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN; EN
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Abstract Objectives: To determine whether work and non-work physical activity (PA) modifies the relationship between pregnancy-related complications and future increased blood pressure (BP) in adult working women. Methods: Female full-time and part-time employees from a tertiary care hospital in South East Ontario (n = 330) provided demographic, PA and history of pregnancy complications information, and participated in anthropometric examination. Participants were classified according to BP status: 1) normal, defined as systolic blood pressure (SBP) < 120 mmHg and/or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) < 80 mmHg; and increased, defined as SBP ≥120 mmHg and/or DBP ≥ 80 mmHg or taking antihypertensive medication for BP control. Levels of PA and sedentary behaviour were calculated using the validated Global Physical Activity Questionnaire, which evaluates PA in the domains of work, transportation, and recreation. Results: Nineteen percent of the sample reported having a pregnancy-related complication. Thirty five percent of participants were classified as having increased BP. Logistic regression analysis determined that working women with a history of pregnancy complications had an increased risk of having elevated BP, after controlling for covariates such as age...

Disproportionate pregnancy-induced myocardial hypertrophy in women with essential hypertension

Zanati Bazan, Silméia Garcia; Borges, Vera Therezinha Medeiros; Martin, Luis Cuadrado; Magalhães, Claudia Garcia; Hueb, João Carlos; Silveira, Liciana Vaz de Arruda; Peraçoli, José Carlos; Matsubara, Beatriz Bojikian
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 816-821
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
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BACKGROUND Pregnancy and arterial hypertension (AH) have a prohypertrophic effect on the heart. It is suspected that the 2 conditions combined cause disproportionate myocardial hypertrophy. We sought to evaluate myocardial hypertrophy (LVH) and left ventricular function in normotensive and hypertensive women in the presence or absence of pregnancy.METHODS This prospective cross-sectional study included 193 women divided into 4 groups: hypertensive pregnant (HTP; n = 57), normotensive pregnant (NTP; n = 47), hypertensive nonpregnant (HTNP; n = 41), and normotensive nonpregnant (NTNP; n = 48). After clinical and echocardiographic evaluation, the variables were analyzed using 2-way analysis of variance with pregnancy and hypertension as factors. Left ventricular mass (LVM) was compared using nonparametric analysis of variance and Dunn′s test. Predictors of LVH and diastolic dysfunction were analyzed using logistic regression (significance level, P < 0.05).RESULTS Myocardial hypertrophy was independently associated with hypertension (odds ratio (OR) = 11.1, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 3.2-38.5; P < 0.001) and pregnancy (OR = 6.1, 95% CI = 2.6-14.3; P < 0.001) in a model adjusted for age and body mass index. Nonpregnant women were at greater risk of LVH in the presence of AH (OR = 25.3...

Repercussões maternas e perinatais do exercício e da atividade física na gestação; Effects of exercise and physical during pregnancy on maternal and perinatal outcombe

Karina Tamy Kasawara
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 29/05/2012 PT
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Introdução: A pré-eclâmpsia (PE) é um dos principais distúrbios hipertensivos da gestação e representa a principal causa de mortalidade e morbidade materna e perinatal. A atividade física e os exercícios físicos vêm sendo descritos para a prevenção da PE. Na gestação sem risco e/ou de baixo risco podem trazer benefícios para a saúde materna, além de ser considerados atividade segura para a saúde da mãe e do feto. No entanto, pouco se sabe sobre seu real efeito, principalmente na gestação de alto risco. Objetivo: revisar, de forma sistemática, a literatura sobre o efeito do exercício físico e da atividade física no desenvolvimento da PE. Avaliar a associação do exercício físico com bicicleta estacionária (BE) em gestantes com hipertensão arterial crônica (HAC) e/ou PE prévia, com o tipo de parto, repercussões maternas e neonatais. Sujeitos e métodos: Para a revisão sistemática foram utilizadas as bases de dados: PubMed®, Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde (LILACS), Scientific Eletronic Library On-line (SciELO), Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) e ISI web of KnowledgeSM. Através dos descritores: "exercise", "motor activity", "physical activity", "pre-eclampsia"...

On the design of education conditional cash transfer programs and non education outcomes: the case of teenage pregnancy

Cortés, Darwin; Gallego, Juan; Maldonado, Darío
Fonte: Facultad de Economía Publicador: Facultad de Economía
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/book; info:eu-repo/semantics/acceptedVersion Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2011
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We investigate the effect of education Conditional Cash Transfer programs (CCTs) on teenage pregnancy. Our main concern is with how the size and sign of the effect may depend on the design of the program. Using a simple model we show that an education CCT that conditions renewal on school performance reduces teenage pregnancy; the program can increase teenage pregnancy if it does not condition on school performance. Then, using an original data base, we estimate the causal impact on teenage pregnancy of two education CCTs implemented in Bogot´a (Subsidio Educativo, SE, and Familias en Acci´on, FA); both programs differ particularly on whether school success is a condition for renewal or not. We show that SE has negative average effect on teenage pregnancy while FA has a null average effect. We also find that SE has either null or no effect for adolescents in all age and grade groups while FA has positive, null or negative effects for adolescents in different age and grade groups. Since SE conditions renewal on school success and FA does not, we can argue that the empirical results are consistent with the predictions of our model and that conditioning renewal of the subsidy on school success crucially determines the effect of the subsidy on teenage pregnancy

Intimate partner violence and unintended pregnancy: prevalence and associated factors

Azevêdo,Ana Carolina da C.; Araújo,Thália Velho Barreto de; Valongueiro,Sandra; Ludermir,Ana Bernarda
Fonte: Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública Sergio Arouca, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz Publicador: Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública Sergio Arouca, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2013 EN
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36.48%
This study investigated the association between unintended pregnancy and intimate partner violence before pregnancy. A cross-sectional study was carried out with 1,054 women, aged 18 to 49, in Recife, Northeastern Brazil, from July 2005 to March 2006. Non-conditional logistic regression analysis was performed with a hierarchical strategy for entering variables into the model, according to the conceptual framework defined. Unintended pregnancy was reported by 60.3% (636) women. Intimate partner violence prior to the pregnancy was associated with unintended pregnancy (ORadj = 1.57; 95%CI: 1.17-2.11), even when adjusted for the women's sociodemographic characteristics, the partner's behaviour, and the relationship dynamic. When the association was adjusted for the use of contraception and the partner's refusal to use contraception, the association was no longer significant, suggesting that the effect of partner violence on unintended pregnancy may be mediated by these variables. The findings point to the need of screening for intimate partner violence in reproductive health services.

Hypertension, pregnancy and weather: is seasonality involved?

Melo,Brena; Amorim,Melania; Katz,Leila; Coutinho,Isabela; Figueiroa,José Natal
Fonte: Associação Médica Brasileira Publicador: Associação Médica Brasileira
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.48%
Objective: The present study aimed at assessing the association between environmental temperature and the relative humidity of the air with frequency of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. Methods: A prospective and retrospective, descriptive, ecological study was held at a teaching maternity in Recife, Brazil. Data from all 26.125 pregnant women admitted between 2000 and 2006 were analysed and 5.051 had the diagnosis of hypertensive disorder of pregnancy. The incidence percentages were calculated monthly per deliveries. Data on mean monthly temperature and relative humidity of the air were collected and monthly comparisons were conducted. February was chosen as the reference month due to its lowest incidence of the disease. The relative chance of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy for each other month was estimated by odds ratio and Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to calculate the relation between the incidence of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and the mean monthly temperature and relative air humidity. Results: February presented the lowest mean monthly incidence (9.95%) and August the highest (21.54%). Pearson correlation coefficient revealed a higher incidence of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy in the cooler months (r= -0.26; p=0.046) and no significant effect of relative air humidity (r=0.20; p=0.128). Conclusion: The incidence of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy may be affected by variations in temperature...

Betting on a work-family culture and leaving pregnancy discrimination behind

Anunciação, Maria Luísa de Sousa Cabral da
Fonte: Instituto Universitário de Lisboa Publicador: Instituto Universitário de Lisboa
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Publicado em //2014 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.48%
Master in Human Resources Management / J13 Fertility • Family Planning • Child Care • Children • Youth J71 Discrimination; This research deals with the influence of the organizational work-family culture on women’s perceived pregnancy discrimination and its affective commitment consequences. It was investigated (a) the effect of work-family culture on the perceptions of pregnancy discrimination that (b) in turn should influence the affective commitment of the working women. A total of 126 working women provided data on their perceptions of pregnancy discrimination, the organizational work-family culture and the affective commitment towards their workplace. The proposed model was tested using structural equation modeling (SEM) procedures and, overall, support a full mediation model in which organizational work-family culture is related to the perceptions of the pregnancy discrimination, which negatively impact the affective commitment towards their organization (χ2 (269) = 439.18; RMSEA = .071 ; CFI = .98; TLI = .98; WRMR = .93). These results make valuable contributions to the literature of pregnancy discrimination at the workplace, and to the organizational work-family culture as a decisive influence factor on pregnancy discrimination and consequently on the workers’ affective commitment.; Este estudo analisa a influência de uma cultura organizacional laboral e familiar nas percepções de discriminação de grávidas por parte de mulheres trabalhadoras...