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Examples of uses of databases for quantitative and qualitative correlation studies between genotoxicity and carcinogenicity.

Parodi, S; Malacarne, D; Taningher, M
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /12/1991 EN
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26.57%
In this paper we give some examples of using databases of genotoxicity and carcinogenicity for quantitative and qualitative correlation studies between short-term tests and carcinogenicity. The quality of the databases is obviously important, but one of the major deficiencies of present databases is that they are too small. Using relatively small, different databases, different results can be obtained. With small databases it is difficult to disaggregate data for homogeneous chemical classes or other types of subsets. Using the databases of Gold (carcinogenicity) and Würgler (genotoxicity), we have investigated the carcinogenic potency of genotoxic and nongenotoxic carcinogens for different chemical classes.

The potential of UK clinical databases in enhancing paediatric medication research

Wong, Ian C K; Murray, Macey L
Fonte: Blackwell Science Inc Publicador: Blackwell Science Inc
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /06/2005 EN
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26.57%
The research potential of many UK clinical databases is not being realized. A recent report published by the Royal College of Paediatrics & Child Health stated that there is a need to build research capacity and support in the area of paediatric pharmacology, with specific emphasis on the use of clinical databases. This article presents the databases available in the UK for medication research and gives some examples of paediatric studies conducted. The databases discussed include the Prescription Pricing Authority database, the General Practice Research Database, IMS Health databases (Medical Data Index, MIDAS Prescribing Insights, Disease-Analyser-Mediplus) and the Yellow Card Scheme. Other databases such as the Medicines Monitoring Unit (MEMO) and the Scottish Primary Care Computer System also have research potential in paediatric pharmacoepidemiology, but their population sizes are relatively small.

Comparative Analyses of Plant Transcription Factor Databases

Ramirez, Silvia R; Basu, Chhandak
Fonte: Bentham Science Publishers Ltd Publicador: Bentham Science Publishers Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /03/2009 EN
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26.57%
Transcription factors (TFs) are proteinaceous complex, which bind to the promoter regions in the DNA and affect transcription initiation. Plant TFs control gene expressions and genes control many physiological processes, which in turn trigger cascades of biochemical reactions in plant cells. The databases available for plant TFs are somewhat abundant but all convey different information and in different formats. Some of the publicly available plant TF databases may be narrow, while others are broad in scopes. For example, some of the best TF databases are ones that are very specific with just one plant species, but there are also other databases that contain a total of up to 20 different plant species. In this review plant TF databases ranging from a single species to many will be assessed and described. The comparative analyses of all the databases and their advantages and disadvantages are also discussed.

Automated Terminology Networks for the Integration of Heterogeneous Databases

Wang, Xiaoyan; Quek, Hui Nar; Cantor, Michael; Kra, Pauline; Schultz, Aylit; Lussier, Yves A.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2004 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.57%
As cross-disciplinary research escalates, researchers are facing the challenge of linking disparate biomedical databases that have been developed without common indexes. Manually indexing these large-scale databases is laborious and often impractical. Solutions involving mediating terminologies have been proposed, but coordination of terms from the databases of interest to these mediating terminologies is also laborious, and regular synchronization between indexes is an additional problem. In this study we describe a novel method of linking heterogeneous databases using terminology networks constructed with automated mapping methods. Linkage was established between two disparate biomedical databases (SNOMED-CT and HDG), using two relevant intermediating databases (UMLS and OMIM). One gold standard of 514 distinct matches is used as proof-of-principle. In conclusion, as hypothesized, 1) Manually curated pathways provide high precision, but offer low recall, 2) the automated terminology pathways can significantly increase recall at acceptable precision. Taken together, our conclusion may suggest the combined manual and automated terminology networks could offer recall and precision in an incremental manner.

PathwayAccess: CellDesigner plugins for pathway databases

Van Hemert, John L.; Dickerson, Julie A.
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Summary: CellDesigner provides a user-friendly interface for graphical biochemical pathway description. Many pathway databases are not directly exportable to CellDesigner models. PathwayAccess is an extensible suite of CellDesigner plugins, which connect CellDesigner directly to pathway databases using respective Java application programming interfaces. The process is streamlined for creating new PathwayAccess plugins for specific pathway databases. Three PathwayAccess plugins, MetNetAccess, BioCycAccess and ReactomeAccess, directly connect CellDesigner to the pathway databases MetNetDB, BioCyc and Reactome. PathwayAccess plugins enable CellDesigner users to expose pathway data to analytical CellDesigner functions, curate their pathway databases and visually integrate pathway data from different databases using standard Systems Biology Markup Language and Systems Biology Graphical Notation.

Medical databases in studies of drug teratogenicity: methodological issues

Ehrenstein, Vera; Sørensen, Henrik T; Bakketeig, Leiv S; Pedersen, Lars
Fonte: Dove Medical Press Publicador: Dove Medical Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 09/08/2010 EN
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More than half of all pregnant women take prescription medications, raising concerns about fetal safety. Medical databases routinely collecting data from large populations are potentially valuable resources for cohort studies addressing teratogenicity of drugs. These include electronic medical records, administrative databases, population health registries, and teratogenicity information services. Medical databases allow estimation of prevalences of birth defects with enhanced precision, but systematic error remains a potentially serious problem. In this review, we first provide a brief description of types of North American and European medical databases suitable for studying teratogenicity of drugs and then discuss manifestation of systematic errors in teratogenicity studies based on such databases. Selection bias stems primarily from the inability to ascertain all reproductive outcomes. Information bias (misclassification) may be caused by paucity of recorded clinical details or incomplete documentation of medication use. Confounding, particularly confounding by indication, can rarely be ruled out. Bias that either masks teratogenicity or creates false appearance thereof, may have adverse consequences for the health of the child and the mother. Biases should be quantified and their potential impact on the study results should be assessed. Both theory and software are available for such estimation. Provided that methodological problems are understood and effectively handled...

Use of information on disease diagnoses from databases for animal health economic, welfare and food safety purposes: strengths and limitations of recordings

Houe, Hans; Gardner, Ian Andrew; Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 20/06/2011 EN
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26.57%
Many animal health, welfare and food safety databases include data on clinical and test-based disease diagnoses. However, the circumstances and constraints for establishing the diagnoses vary considerably among databases. Therefore results based on different databases are difficult to compare and compilation of data in order to perform meta-analysis is almost impossible. Nevertheless, diagnostic information collected either routinely or in research projects is valuable in cross comparisons between databases, but there is a need for improved transparency and documentation of the data and the performance characteristics of tests used to establish diagnoses. The objective of this paper is to outline the circumstances and constraints for recording of disease diagnoses in different types of databases, and to discuss these in the context of disease diagnoses when using them for additional purposes, including research. Finally some limitations and recommendations for use of data and for recording of diagnostic information in the future are given. It is concluded that many research questions have such a specific objective that investigators need to collect their own data. However, there are also examples, where a minimal amount of extra information or continued validation could make sufficient improvement of secondary data to be used for other purposes. Regardless...

A structured vocabulary for indexing dietary supplements in databases in the United States

Saldanha, Leila G; Dwyer, Johanna T; Holden, Joanne M; Ireland, Jayne D.; Andrews, Karen W; Bailey, Regan L; Gahche, Jaime J.; Hardy, Constance J; Møller, Anders; Pilch, Susan M.; Roseland, Janet M
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.57%
Food composition databases are critical to assess and plan dietary intakes. Dietary supplement databases are also needed because dietary supplements make significant contributions to total nutrient intakes. However, no uniform system exists for classifying dietary supplement products and indexing their ingredients in such databases. Differing approaches to classifying these products make it difficult to retrieve or link information effectively. A consistent approach to classifying information within food composition databases led to the development of LanguaL™, a structured vocabulary. LanguaL™ is being adapted as an interface tool for classifying and retrieving product information in dietary supplement databases. This paper outlines proposed changes to the LanguaL™ thesaurus for indexing dietary supplement products and ingredients in databases. The choice of 12 of the original 14 LanguaL™ facets pertinent to dietary supplements, modifications to their scopes, and applications are described. The 12 chosen facets are: Product Type; Source; Part of Source; Physical State, Shape or Form; Ingredients; Preservation Method, Packing Medium, Container or Wrapping; Contact Surface; Consumer Group/Dietary Use/Label Claim; Geographic Places and Regions; and Adjunct Characteristics of food.

MetaboSearch: Tool for Mass-Based Metabolite Identification Using Multiple Databases

Zhou, Bin; Wang, Jinlian; Ressom, Habtom W.
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 29/06/2012 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.6%
Searching metabolites against databases according to their masses is often the first step in metabolite identification for a mass spectrometry-based untargeted metabolomics study. Major metabolite databases include Human Metabolome DataBase (HMDB), Madison Metabolomics Consortium Database (MMCD), Metlin, and LIPID MAPS. Since each one of these databases covers only a fraction of the metabolome, integration of the search results from these databases is expected to yield a more comprehensive coverage. However, the manual combination of multiple search results is generally difficult when identification of hundreds of metabolites is desired. We have implemented a web-based software tool that enables simultaneous mass-based search against the four major databases, and the integration of the results. In addition, more complete chemical identifier information for the metabolites is retrieved by cross-referencing multiple databases. The search results are merged based on IUPAC International Chemical Identifier (InChI) keys. Besides a simple list of m/z values, the software can accept the ion annotation information as input for enhanced metabolite identification. The performance of the software is demonstrated on mass spectrometry data acquired in both positive and negative ionization modes. Compared with search results from individual databases...

The use of genealogy databases for risk assessment in genetic health service: a systematic review

Stefansdottir, Vigdis; Johannsson, Oskar Th.; Skirton, Heather; Tryggvadottir, Laufey; Tulinius, Hrafn; Jonsson, Jon J.
Fonte: Springer-Verlag Publicador: Springer-Verlag
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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26.57%
The use of electronic genealogical databases facilitates the construction of accurate and extensive pedigrees for potential use in genetic services. Genealogy databases can be linked to specific disease databases, such as cancer registries, in order to increase the accuracy of pedigrees used, and inform the genetic risk assessment. To review the published literature on the use of genealogy databases to construct pedigrees for risk assessment in genetic health service, a systematic literature search was undertaken using 12 combined search terms to identify all relevant published articles. Data sources: EbscoHost, PubMed, Web of Science, Ovid and the “grey literature”, as well as the reference lists of identified studies. Of 1,035 titles identified, two papers described a study on the use of genealogy databases in cancer risk assessment and two were discussion papers. While authors of the four papers described the potential use of genealogy databases in clinical genetic services, such use has not been adequately investigated and further research is required.

Redundancy Control in Pathway Databases (ReCiPa): An Application for Improving Gene-Set Enrichment Analysis in Omics Studies and “Big Data” Biology

Vivar, Juan C.; Pemu, Priscilla; McPherson, Ruth; Ghosh, Sujoy
Fonte: Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. Publicador: Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /08/2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.6%
Unparalleled technological advances have fueled an explosive growth in the scope and scale of biological data and have propelled life sciences into the realm of “Big Data” that cannot be managed or analyzed by conventional approaches. Big Data in the life sciences are driven primarily via a diverse collection of ‘omics’-based technologies, including genomics, proteomics, metabolomics, transcriptomics, metagenomics, and lipidomics. Gene-set enrichment analysis is a powerful approach for interrogating large ‘omics’ datasets, leading to the identification of biological mechanisms associated with observed outcomes. While several factors influence the results from such analysis, the impact from the contents of pathway databases is often under-appreciated. Pathway databases often contain variously named pathways that overlap with one another to varying degrees. Ignoring such redundancies during pathway analysis can lead to the designation of several pathways as being significant due to high content-similarity, rather than truly independent biological mechanisms. Statistically, such dependencies also result in correlated p values and overdispersion, leading to biased results. We investigated the level of redundancies in multiple pathway databases and observed large discrepancies in the nature and extent of pathway overlap. This prompted us to develop the application...

Comparison of locus-specific databases for BRCA1 and BRCA2 variants reveals disparity in variant classification within and among databases

Vail, Paris J.; Morris, Brian; van Kan, Aric; Burdett, Brianna C.; Moyes, Kelsey; Theisen, Aaron; Kerr, Iain D.; Wenstrup, Richard J.; Eggington, Julie M.
Fonte: Springer Berlin Heidelberg Publicador: Springer Berlin Heidelberg
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.6%
Genetic variants of uncertain clinical significance (VUSs) are a common outcome of clinical genetic testing. Locus-specific variant databases (LSDBs) have been established for numerous disease-associated genes as a research tool for the interpretation of genetic sequence variants to facilitate variant interpretation via aggregated data. If LSDBs are to be used for clinical practice, consistent and transparent criteria regarding the deposition and interpretation of variants are vital, as variant classifications are often used to make important and irreversible clinical decisions. In this study, we performed a retrospective analysis of 2017 consecutive BRCA1 and BRCA2 genetic variants identified from 24,650 consecutive patient samples referred to our laboratory to establish an unbiased dataset representative of the types of variants seen in the US patient population, submitted by clinicians and researchers for BRCA1 and BRCA2 testing. We compared the clinical classifications of these variants among five publicly accessible BRCA1 and BRCA2 variant databases: BIC, ClinVar, HGMD (paid version), LOVD, and the UMD databases. Our results show substantial disparity of variant classifications among publicly accessible databases. Furthermore...

The use of databases of social and gender statistics in the development of policies and programmes

Busby, Lancelot
Fonte: ECLAC Publicador: ECLAC
Tipo: Texto
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.57%
The unavailability of data to inform policy planning and formulation has been repeatedly cited as the main challenge to economic and social progress in the Caribbean. Furthermore, even in instances when data is produced, broader gaps exist between its production and eventual use for evidence-based policy formulation. Owing to those challenges, this report explores the use of databases of social and gender statistics in the development of policies and programmes in the Caribbean subregion. The report offers a general appraisal of databases against two main considerations: (i) maximizing the use of existing databases in relevant policies and programmes; and (ii) bridging the gaps in data availability of relevant statistical databases and their analyses. The assessment entailed an inventory of social and gender databases maintained by data producers in the region and analysis of the extent to which the databases are used for policy formulation. To that end, a literature search as well as consultations with a number of knowledgeable persons active in the field of statistics and data provision was conducted. Based on the review, a set of recommendations were produced to improve current practices within the region with respect evidence based policy formulation.

Re-thinking organisms: The impact of databases on model organism biology

Leonelli, S.; Ankeny, R.
Fonte: Pergamon Publicador: Pergamon
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2012 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.57%
Community databases have become crucial to the collection, ordering and retrieval of data gathered on model organisms, as well as to the ways in which these data are interpreted and used across a range of research contexts. This paper analyses the impact of community databases on research practices in model organism biology by focusing on the history and current use of four community databases: FlyBase, Mouse Genome Informatics, WormBase and The Arabidopsis Information Resource. We discuss the standards used by the curators of these databases for what counts as reliable evidence, acceptable terminology, appropriate experimental set-ups and adequate materials (e.g., specimens). On the one hand, these choices are informed by the collaborative research ethos characterising most model organism communities. On the other hand, the deployment of these standards in databases reinforces this ethos and gives it concrete and precise instantiations by shaping the skills, practices, values and background knowledge required of the database users. We conclude that the increasing reliance on community databases as vehicles to circulate data is having a major impact on how researchers conduct and communicate their research, which affects how they understand the biology of model organisms and its relation to the biology of other species.; Sabina Leonelli...

JRC ongoing activities for the improvement of Data Quality and Harmonization in LCI datasets and databases

FAZIO SIMONE; RECCHIONI MARCO; MASONI P.; GARRAIN Daniel
Fonte: AVNIR Publicador: AVNIR
Tipo: Contributions to Conferences Formato: Online
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.6%
the availability of consistent, harmonized and quality assured datasets and databases, is deemed as one of the most important factors for the robustness of LC-based studies and methodologies. The European Commission in the last decade put a lot of effort on that, releasing the ILCD handbook, including a set of rules on data quality (DQ) and dataset format; recently, the "Single Market for Green Products" initiative, through the launch Environmental Footprint (EF) methods, highlighted again the above mentioned needs. In this framework the Joint Research Centre is leading some activities in order to evaluate the efforts needed to improve the existing LCI databases, against the ILCD and EF DQ requirements. Furthermore, some analyses have been carried out to assess the DQ Rating (DQR) of specific sectorial datasets and databases, within the European Life Cycle Database (ELCD), in comparison with other databases, in order to point out the strength and weak-points of the ELCD and figure out some possibilities for improvement of DQRs. An analysis on three commercial databases has been carried out, in order to evaluate the needs for improvement aimed at fulfilling the DQ requirements for ILCD entry-level and EF compliance. Among the detailed DQR analyses...

JRC ongoing activities for the improvements of Data Quality and Harmonization in LCD datasets and databases

FAZIO SIMONE; RECCHIONI MARCO; GARRAIN Daniel; MASONI P.
Fonte: AVNIR Publicador: AVNIR
Tipo: Contributions to Conferences Formato: Printed
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.6%
The availability of consistent, harmonized and quality assured datasets and databases is deemed as one of the most important factors for the robustness of LC-based studies and methodologies. The European Commission (EC), in the last decade, put a lot of effort on that, releasing the ILCD handbook that includes a set of rules on data quality (DQ) and a dataset format; recently, the "Single Market for Green Products" initiative, through the launch Environmental Footprint (EF) methods, highlighted again the above mentioned needs and advanced several requirements. In this framework the EC, through its Joint Research Centre, is leading some activities in order to evaluate the efforts needed to improve existing LCI databases relative to the ILCD and EF DQ requirements. Furthermore, some analyses have been carried out to assess the DQ Rating (DQR) of specific sectorial datasets and databases, within the European Life Cycle Database (ELCD), in comparison with other databases, in order to point out the strengths and weak-points of the ELCD and to help figure out some possibilities for improvement of DQRs. An analysis on three commercial databases was carried out to evaluate the needs for improvement aimed at fulfilling the DQ requirements for ILCD entry-level and EF compliance. Among the detailed DQR analyses...

Contribution of freely available databases for the accurate classification of emergent pathogens

João, Inês; Cristóvão, Paula; Jordão, Luísa
Fonte: Instituto Nacional de Saúde Doutor Ricardo Jorge, IP Publicador: Instituto Nacional de Saúde Doutor Ricardo Jorge, IP
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Publicado em /04/2013 ENG
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26.57%
OBJECTIVES: Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are a heterogeneous group of microorganisms. Their clinical relevance and treatment differs significantly upon NTM species, which makes identification at this level crucial. Additionally, inaccurate diagnosis can lead to therapeutic approaches consistent with Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection which are usefulness.In the present study different molecular methods were used in the identification of NTM. The aim was to evaluate and compare the performance of freely available databases in the accurate identification of NTM. METHODS: Partial sequencing of hsp65 and 16S rRNA genes of 54 strains of NTM. The resulting sequences were compared with the nucleotide sequences from GenBank, RIDOM and EzTaxon databases for 16S rRNA gene. For hsp65 gene GenBank and Web Databases were used. RESULTS: Seventy-two percent of NTM were identified to species level by 16SrRNA analysis. The remaining 28% failed this goal. Thirty-three obtained an unique outcome in all databases and 6 isolates (15%) obtained at least one different resultAnalysis of hsp65 gene sequences identified unambiguously 76% of the strains, for the remaining 22% the analysis led to the possibility of classification into more than one species. Of all the strains analyzed...

Defense spending databases for countries in the Asia-Pacific Region: an analysis and comparison.

Reuning, Charles R.
Fonte: Escola de Pós-Graduação Naval Publicador: Escola de Pós-Graduação Naval
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: xii, 203 p. ; 28 cm.
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The purpose of this research was to identify and analyze a select number of unclassified databases that cover defense spending and other defense related criteria for countries in the Asia-Pacific region. A thorough search was first conducted for databases with defense information on countries in the Asia- Pacific region. Initial sorting criteria were identified and applied to create a list of databases to be evaluated in detail. These databases were then evaluated and discussed in detail using additional evaluation criteria that were developed. Conclusions were then drawn, and recommendations made, for the best databases to be used by defense and policy analysts in the future. This research recommended the following databases. For defense spending information, the Australian Defense Intelligence Organization's Defense Economic Trends in the Asia-Pacific 1999 was recommended. For defense capabilities information, the International Strategic Studies Association's Defense and Foreign Affairs Handbook was recommended. For arms sales and transfers information, the SIPRI yearbook was recommended for use. The best all around defense database on the Asia-Pacific region was judged to be the International Institute of Strategic Studies' Military Balance 2000/2001.

Undergraduate use of CD-ROM databases: Observations of human-computer interaction and relevance judgments.

Shaw, Debora
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.6%
Ten students in a freshman Elementary Composition course were observed as they searched bibliographic databases on a CD-ROM LAN. All were preparing term papers, and were asked to think aloud as they conducted their searches. A total of 329 relevance judgments were made as the students searched an average of 2.7 databases per session. Basic familiarity with computers and a tendency to get out of unproductive searches helped in avoiding problems with the variety of databases and search interfaces. All students found records they chose to print, with relevance judgments often made from information in the controlled vocabulary, title, or abstract. The browse interface was used most often, and its similarity to InfoTrac was helpful. Some students were able to use keyword access effectively, though Wilsondisc's multiterm search required adjustments and adaptation of strategies. SilverPlatter's record display and print functions caused confusion for searchers unfamiliar with this interface. Bibliographic databases on CD-ROM are as common a tool as the photocopier or word processor in writing term papers for today's undergraduate students. While the various search interfaces are touted as easy to use, many librarians find students do not use them intuitively and must have their CD-ROM searching skills developed through bibliographic instruction. Relatively little has been documented about how students actually use these databases...

Spectral signature databases and their application/misapplication to modeling and exploitation of multispectral/hyperspectral data

Salvaggio, Carl; Smith, Lon; Antoine, Emily
Fonte: The International Society for Optical Engineering (SPIE) Publicador: The International Society for Optical Engineering (SPIE)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.6%
Spectral signature databases abound in the field of remote sensing. Scientists use these databases to assist in their analysis everyday. Many decisions are made about hyperspectral data and the observations made with this data based on the assumption that these databases contain “ground truth” representations of the signatures for materials sensed. For the most part, this is true if the team collecting the signatures that populate these databases follow sound practices when collecting this data. The data does, however, represent a very specific picture of the “truth”. Signatures found in databases represent a specific collection configuration or geometry. The source of illumination, whether it is artificial or natural, is in a very specific location as is the sensor used to collect radiance for the derivation of the reflectance signatures. A signature found in the database is useful for only a very specific scenario, one that matches the geometry used during ground truth collection. There are other very significant factors regarding illumination field and scattering properties of the material and reference standards that influence the computed reflectance signature. This work will illustrate some of the dramatic variation that can exist in the reflectance signatures derived for the same material using different techniques. Difference upward of 30% may exist for the same material. These observations are presented so that scientists who look to these databases in the future will consider very carefully the metadata that is presented with the signatures that they use to make sure they are applicable to the phenomenology and collection scenario that they have under study. These observations should also point out that signatures presented without detailed metadata could be very hazardous to use if the outcome of the analysis being performed relies upon the absolute reflectance spectra being known.; "Spectral signature databases and their application/misapplication to modeling and exploitation of multispectral/hyperspectral data...