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A descentralização do ensino : vontade do poder central ou exigência do poder local

Lopes, Estêvão Gouveia
Fonte: Universidade Aberta de Portugal Publicador: Universidade Aberta de Portugal
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Publicado em //2012 POR
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Dissertação de Mestrado em Administração e Gestão Educacional apresentada à Universidade Aberta; A presente dissertação aborda a problemática da descentralização do ensino em Portugal, num sistema claramente centralizado por razões históricas e sociais. Partindo da pergunta inicial sobre se existe descentralização do ensino em Portugal, o trabalho incide fundamentalmente sobre a identificação dos agentes responsáveis por esse processo de descentralização. Após um enquadramento teórico, que identifica algumas obras sobre o tema em análise, faz-se um breve historial do sistema de ensino e um levantamento da evolução do quadro normativo que regulamenta a gestão dos estabelecimentos de ensino e do sistema educativo em geral. Da análise desses diplomas conclui-se claramente que estamos perante um sistema de ensino bastante centralizado, mas que tem igualmente existido, a partir da década de noventa do Século XX, um conjunto de iniciativas no sentido de descentralizar alguns aspetos do sistema, relacionados principalmente com a gestão do pessoal não docente e com a manutenção de edifícios e equipamentos. Essas tentativas de descentralização têm sido promovidas quase exclusivamente pelo poder central e tem sido um processo que tem como objetivo a municipalização do ensino. Contudo este processo tem enfrentado resistências de vária ordem...

O municipalismo brasileiro e a provisão local de políticas sociais: o caso dos serviços de saúde nos municípios paulistas; The Brazilian municipalism and the provision of local social politics: the case of health services in the São Paulo' s municipalities

Oliveira, Vanessa Elias de
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 24/08/2007 PT
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A tese examina o municipalismo brasileiro após a Constituição de 1988, verificando como os municípios se saem no provimento dos serviços locais de saúde face à descentralização desta política com a criação do SUS. Argumenta-se que o processo de descentralização da saúde desenvolveu-se, ao longo dos anos 90, em duas fases distintas: a fase da descentralização autonomista, entre 1990 e 1998, quando os municípios tinham total liberdade nas escolhas da política local de saúde, e a fase da descentralização dirigida, após a introdução do Piso de Assistência Básica - PAB, quando os municípios começaram a receber recursos "carimbados", destinados exclusivamente a determinados programas de saúde, determinados pelo Ministério da Saúde. Todavia, conforme demonstramos, ambas as fases não foram capazes de minorar as desigualdades regionais existentes, em termos de oferta, acesso e financiamento aos serviços municipais de saúde. Enfim, demonstramos que as desigualdades em saúde produzidas pelo nosso federalismo não foram equacionadas pelo desenho adotado pela política de municipalização da saúde. Somado a isso, demonstramos que os argumentos normalmente utilizados pela literatura sobre federalismo e municipalismo no Brasil...

Policies directed towards STD/AIDS and their political-care integration in the context of the SUS: a study of the city of Florianópolis, SC, Brazil

Maliska,Isabel Cristina Alves; Padilha,Maria Itayra; Andrade,Selma Regina
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Programa de Pós Graduação em Enfermagem Publicador: Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Programa de Pós Graduação em Enfermagem
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/09/2014 EN
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This qualitative study, with a socio-historical perspective, aimed to examine how the process of decentralization of STD/AIDS actions took place in Florianópolis, SC, Brazil, and its effects on the level of care and administration. The data collection was based on documentary and oral sources. A total of 11 health professionals were interviewed, who performed care and/or management activities linked to STD/AIDS, during the study period (2006-2010). The results were analyzed using content analysis, resulting in two categories: The administrative decentralization of the Municipal STD/AIDS Program; The decentralization of STD/AIDS care. The restructuring of the STD/AIDS Program was part of the reorganization process of the municipal health system and the progressive incorporation of the concept of Health Surveillance. Decentralization of the actions was perceived as a condition necessary for the integration of STD/AIDS policies into the macropolitics of the SUS, however, continuous monitoring of the directions of the epidemic from the new conformation of this care policy is required.

The Effect of Fiscal Decentralization on Under-five Mortality in Iran: A Panel Data Analysis

Samadi, Ali Hussein; Keshtkaran, Ali; Kavosi, Zahra; Vahedi, Sajad
Fonte: Kerman University of Medical Sciences Publicador: Kerman University of Medical Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 27/11/2013 EN
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Background: Fiscal Decentralization (FD) in many cases is encouraged as a strong means of improving the efficiency and equity in the provision of public goods, such as healthcare services. This issue has urged the researchers to experimentally examine the relationship between fiscal decentralization indicators and health outcomes. In this study we examine the effect of Fiscal Decentralization in Medical Universities (FDMU) and Fiscal Decentralization in Provincial Revenues (FDPR) on Under-Five Mortality Rate (U5M) in provinces of Iran over the period between 2007 and 2010.

Decentralization and Fiscal Discipline in Sub-national Governments: Evidence from the Swiss Federal System

Freitag, Markus; Vatter, Adrian
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
EN
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This article analyses the relationship between decentralization and the extent of fiscal discipline in the Swiss cantons between 1984 and 2000. From a theoretical point of view, decentralization and federalism can be associated with both an expansive and a dampening effect on government debt. On the one hand, decentralized structures have been argued to lead to a reduction of debt due to inherent competition between the member states and the multitude of veto positions which restrict public intervention. On the other hand, decentralization has been claimed to contribute to an increase of public debt as it involves expensive functional and organizational duplications as well as cost-intensive, often debt-financed, compromise solutions between a large number of actors that operate in an uncoordinated and contradictory way. Our empirical results show that in periods of prosperous economic development, the architecture of state structure has no impact on debt. However, the degree of decentralization influences debt in economically poor times: In phases of economic recession, administratively decentralized cantons implement a more economical budgetary policy than centralized Swiss member states.

Fiscal Decentralization and Federalism in Latin America

Escobar-Lemmon, Maria
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
EN
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In contrast to years of centralization when the national government dominated the states and municipalities, fiscal decentralization is now taking place throughout Latin America. This study considers the reasons for this change. Fiscal decentralization merits separate attention because the financial independence of subnational governments ultimately determines their success and power. Competing political and economic explanations are tested on a sample of 17 countries between 1985 and 1995. While federalism is a significant predictor of greater fiscal decentralization, other factors such as presidential power, structural adjustment, level of development, and country size also determine the level of fiscal decentralization.

After Decentralization: Patterns of Intergovernmental Conflict in Argentina, Brazil, Spain, and Mexico

Montero, Alfred P.
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
EN
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Recent scholarship on the political determinants of decentralization has been useful for explaining initial decisions by national elites to decentralize, but the electoral independent variables favored by these analyses are insufficient to explain the complex process of decentralization over time. Distributional conflicts involving national chief executives and subnational governments occurring after decentralization is initiated shape the process in ways that alter initial conditions. This study assesses change in the degree, pattern, and pace of decentralization in four countries: Argentina, Brazil, Mexico, and Spain.

Mudanças nos modelos de gestão: a política educacional e dos (des)acertos da experiência no Rio Grande do Norte (1995-1999); Changes ih the management: the educational policy and the mistakes of its experiments in Rio Grande do Norte (1995 1999)

Barbalho, Maria Goretti Cabral
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte; BR; UFRN; Programa de Pós-Graduação em Educação; Educação Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte; BR; UFRN; Programa de Pós-Graduação em Educação; Educação
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: application/pdf
POR
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This work focuses on the educational policies, on the necessity of adopting new models of administration of the education, as well as the implementation of reforms in this filed during the 1990 s. It analyzes the strategies of decentralization of the education in Rio Grande do Norte, disclosing practices conceived in the governmental plans and programs. It also aims to evidence the aspects of the decentralization proposed in the educational system management model, adopted by the Department of Education and Culture of Rio Grande do Norte from 1995 to 1999. Bibliographic researches and documental analysis were used as sources and semi-structured interviews were held in order to collect data. This work also highlights the concepts of participation, autonomy and democratic management intrinsic to the process of decentralization in the education field. It is clear that decentralization, as the vector of democracy, requires not only certain conditions that assure the universal access to the necessary information, but also that all segments of the institution have a voice in the collegiates and that the management and decision-making processes be transparent. This analysis reveals the importance of creating means to promote autonomy, participation and democratic management in order to consolidate a decentralized system. It is also clear that these mechanisms have been proposed in a vague way by the governmental guidelines...

Governments and the Decentralization

LACROIX, Robert; MARTIN, Fernand
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 1147395 bytes; application/pdf
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The Purpose of This Article Is to Show How Costs and Benefits of Geographical Decentralization of R&D Can Be Identified and Compared. the Benefits for the Region That Receives R&D Activities Are Studied in Section 1. They Stem From the Short-Run Multiplier Effect, the Amelioration of Human Capital and the Possible Modernization of the Local Industrial Structure. on the Cost Side Examined in Section 2, the Observable Impacts of the Decentralization of R&D Concern the Loss of Returns to Scale and of the Production of the R&D Output. It Is Shown, in Section 3, That the Flows of Costs and Benefits Must Be Discounted by the Social Cost of Capital. the Main Conclusion of This Article Is That the Decentralization of R&D in a Large Sparsely Populated Country Entails Social Cost and Would Weaken Its Competitive Position in World Commerce. on the Other Hand, the Issue of Decentralization Is More Crucial for Small Countries (In Terms of Population and Economic Size) Than for Large Ones, Like the U.S., Where Critical Masses of Research Efforts Cna Be Simulataneously Attained in Many Fields and in Many Places.

Limitantes a la descentralización en salud: Caso municipio de Chía Cundinamarca

Ramírez Galindo, Juan Pablo
Fonte: Pontifícia Universidade Javeriana Publicador: Pontifícia Universidade Javeriana
Tipo: bachelorThesis; Trabajo de Grado Pregrado Formato: Pdf
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En Colombia el proceso de la descentralización ha estado alejado de las concepciones primarias por las que fue creado. El bajo empoderamiento local, la poca autonomía administrativa, la reducción constante de los recursos destinados a los municipios, la no inclusión de este tema en la agenda gubernamental, entre otros, han hecho que el proceso de descentralización desconozca aspectos fundamentales en la autonomía territorial generando así limitantes importantes para los municipios del país los cuales se ven truncados en su intento de mejorar la calidad de vida de sus habitantes sin poder tener un campo de acción mayor al que tienen hoy en día.; In Colombia the process of decentralization has been away from the elementary conceptions for which they were created. The low local empowerment, poor administrative autonomy, the steady reduction in the resources allocated to municipalities, non-inclusion of this item on the government agenda, among others, have made the process of decentralization unknown fundamentals in creating territorial autonomy so important constraints for municipalities which were truncated in its attempt to improve the quality of life of its inhabitants unable to have a greater scope to have today.

Evaluating Fiscal Equalization in Indonesia

Hofman, Bert; Kadjatmiko; Kaiser, Kai; Suharnoko Sjahrir, Bambang
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
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This paper presents a methodology to evaluate fiscal decentralization focusing on the potential mis-targeting of intergovernmental fiscal equalization transfers. The approach builds on an explicit comparison and the summary measurement of different (horizontal) allocation distributions across states or localities. Whereas formula-based fiscal transfers have the merit of being transparent and promoting revenue predictability in fiscal decentralization, in practice, two challenges emerge: (1) What are the appropriate formula designs given the sub-national data constraints evident in most decentralizing developing countries? and (2) How costly in terms of mis-targeting to the presumed expenditure needs and fiscal capacity are deviations from these types of benchmark formulas (for example, due to historical factors or the need to meet establishment costs such as civil service wages)? The authors illustrate this approach by assessing Indonesia's evolving intergovernmental fiscal system instituted in the 2001 Big Bang decentralization. The discussion comes against Indonesia's recent policy decision to fully fund sub-national civil servant wages as part of the base general allocation grant (DAU) transfers, raising questions about both incentive effects for local governments and potential mis-targeting. The authors identify potential efficiency losses from the DAU's horizontal misallocation from half a dozen alternative scenarios found in the policy dialogue...

Decentralizing Infrastructure Services : Lessons from the East Asia Experience

Muzzini, Elisa
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
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This document specifies, most east asian countries have increasingly shifted responsibilities for infrastructure services to subnational tiers of governments. Infrastructure service provision involves a broad set of functions, including setting investment priorities, building and operating infrastructure facilities, and financing capital and operation and maintenance requirements. The extent to which each of these functions is transferred to subnational agencies defines a country's decentralization approach for infrastructure services. Subnational governments also have significant leeway in deciding how to mobilize funds for infrastructure projects. The infrastructure projects focused in three countries China, Indonesia, and the Philippines. In China, the central government plays a prominent role in setting investment priorities across infrastructure sectors. Indonesia and the Philippines have adopted a big bang approach to infrastructure decentralization. The report concludes, despite the heterogeneous environments in which decentralization has been implemented in the three countries...

La décentralisation au Niger : le cas de la mobilisation des ressources financières dans la ville de Niamey

Nyirakamana, Colette
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
FR
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La décentralisation implantée en 2004 au Niger, a pour objectif de promouvoir le développement « par le bas » et de diffuser les principes démocratiques dans les milieux locaux, afin d’améliorer les conditions de vie des populations. Les recherches sur le sujet font état d’un écart considérable entre les objectifs et les réalisations de la décentralisation. Les facteurs avancés pour expliquer cet écart sont entre autres, le faible appui technique et financier de l’État envers les collectivités territoriales ou encore la quasi-inexistence d’une fonction publique locale qualifiée et apte à prendre en charge les projets de décentralisation. Toutefois, ces observations s’avèrent insuffisantes pour rendre compte des difficultés rencontrées par les acteurs de la décentralisation au Niger. Nous affirmons que les partis politiques jouent un rôle fondamental dans le processus de décentralisations. Ceux-ci diffusent des stratégies d’influence politique et de patronage dans les arènes locales. Les stratégies des partis politiques entravent les initiatives des acteurs locaux, notamment leur capacité de mobilisation des ressources financières.; Decentralization began in 2004 in Niger, aims to promote development "from below" and spreading democratic principles in local communities...

La stratégie sénégalaise du faire faire et la construction du sens de la gouvernance de l’éducation non formelle

Anne, Abdoulaye
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
FR
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Ces trois dernières décennies, les systèmes éducatifs du monde ont subi de grandes transformations axées sur la recherche de plus de pertinence et d’efficacité en relation avec l’évolution globale de la société (Mundy, 2005; Lessard, 2000; Farrell, 1997). Ces évolutions ont pris, entre autres formes, celle d’un mouvement de décentralisation de l’offre éducative (Mons, 2004) considérée par plusieurs chercheurs comme une forme de privatisation. Aujourd’hui, la manière dont la politique de décentralisation a été menée est remise en question par certains au motif que (1) la faible capacité financière d’un bon nombre d’États en cause les a amenés à accepter des politiques recommandées, pour ne pas dire imposées, par des instances supranationales et aussi devant le constat que (2) plusieurs années plus tard, les fruits promis du changement sont encore attendus (Daun, 2007). Dans le cadre de la présente thèse, nous nous sommes intéressé à l’expérience sénégalaise de décentralisation de l’éducation. À partir des années 1990, ce pays, confronté comme les autres pays d’Afrique au sud du Sahara à une profonde crise de son système éducatif, a initié une réforme décentralisatrice (Pelletier...

The principle of administrative decentralization through the creation of state companies; Princípio da descentralização administrativa através da criação de empresas estatais

Souto, Marcos Juruena Villela
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Direito Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Direito
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/01/1992 POR
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The article examines the principle of decentralization through the creation of state companies and the possibility of they being instituted by states and municipalities. After that it goes into the main theories about the origin and functions of the state, specially the aspect of its administrative function. It looks into the structure of administration, direct and indirect, the definitions of the Executive Law n. 200/67, in the 5th. section, the principle of decentralization and its forms, decentralization through cooperation, decentralization through state companies. It analyses the types of state companies, the hesitation of doctrine concerning the existence of two types of state companies, exploiter of the economic activity and renderer of public services and the opinion of jurists on the theme. It ends with the state companies of states and municipalities and the privatization as a corrector of the abuses of decentralization.; O artigo examina o princípio da descentralização através da criação de empresas estatais e a possibilidade de os estados e municípios virem a instituí-las. Trata a seguir das principais teorias acerca da origem e das funções do Estado, especialmente no que toca à função de administrar. Aborda a estrutura da administração...

Does decentralization matter for regional disparities? A cross-country analysis

Ezcurra, Roberto; Rodríguez-Pose, Andrés
Fonte: Spatial Economics Research Centre (SERC), London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: Spatial Economics Research Centre (SERC), London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /06/2009 EN; EN
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This paper looks at the relationship between fiscal and political decentralization and the evolution of regional inequalities in a panel of 26 countries – 19 developed and 7 developing – for the period between 1990 and 2006. Using an instrumental variables method, it finds that whereas for the whole sample decentralization is completely dissociated for the evolution of regional disparities, the results are highly contingent on the level of development, the existing level of territorial inequalities, and the fiscal redistributive capacity of the countries in the sample. Decentralization in high income countries has, if anything, been associated with a reduction of regional inequality. In low and medium income countries, fiscal decentralization has been associated with a significant rise in regional disparities, which the positive effects of political decentralization have been unable to compensate. Policy preferences by subnational governments for expenditure in economic affairs, education, and social protection have contributed to this trend.

Is decentralization good for development? Perspectives from academics and policy makers.

Faguet, Jean-Paul; Pöschl, Caroline
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Book Section; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2015 EN; EN
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Decentralization research has become more quantitative and formal over the past two decades. But as technical rigor has increased, the focus of research has narrowed to decentralization’s effects on particular policy variables, leaving aside larger, more nuanced and complex questions of crucial importance to policymakers contemplating reform. This book seeks to return attention to issues like this that rank among policymakers’ first concerns, but are methodologically difficult to answer. We do this by marrying the insights and experience of senior policymakers involved in driving decentralization forward at the highest levels, with academics working at the forefront of the field in economics, politics, and development and policy studies. This chapter introduces the book by analyzing the following questions: Why do politicians decentralize in the first place? How can reform be made politically feasible? How can decentralization lead to improved development outcomes? Do municipalities compete amongst themselves, and what effects might this have on public policy and services? Will decentralization promote clientelism or broad-based development? And finally, will decentralization strengthen or weaken developing states? The evidence presented in the book provides a firm basis for concrete answers to all of these questions...

Decentralization and development in contemporary Uganda

Green, Elliott
Fonte: Routledge Publicador: Routledge
Tipo: Article; PeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2015 EN; EN
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There has long been an emphasis on the importance of decentralization in providing better quality public services in the developing world. In order to assess the effectiveness of decentralization I examine here the case study of Uganda, which has seen major decentralization of power over the last quarter-century. In particular the current government has introduced a five-tiered local government structure, decentralized both fiscal and political power to local governments and introduced regular local government elections. However, initial excitement about Uganda's decentralization programme has tapered off in recent years due to a number of problems outlined here. In particular, I show that decentralization in Uganda has suffered from a lack of independence from central government control, which has led to a lack of effectiveness in the provision of high quality public goods.

Transformation from below in Bolivia and Bangladesh: decentralization, local governance, and systemic change

Faguet, Jean-Paul
Fonte: The London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: The London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /02/2015 EN; EN
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I examine decentralization through the lens of the local dynamics it unleashed in the much-noted case of Bolivia and the less-noted case of Bangladesh. I argue that the national effects of decentralization are largely the sum of its local-level effects. Hence to understand decentralization we must first understand how local government works. This implies analysing not only decentralization, but also democracy, from the bottom up. Beginning with Bolivia, I explore the deep economic and institutional determinants of government quality in two extremes of municipal performance. From this I derive a model of local government responsiveness as the product of political openness and substantive competition. The quality of politics, in turn, emerges endogenously as a joint product of the lobbying and political engagement of local firms/interests, and the organizational density and ability of civil society. The model explains the micro-foundations of good vs. bad local government performance, and hence of Bolivia’s overall decentralization success. I then test these ideas using qualitative data from Bangladesh. The evidence shows that civic organizations worked with NGOs and local governments to effect transformative change from the grass-roots upwards – not just to public budgets and outputs...

Decentralization and equity of resource allocation: evidence from Colombia and Chile

Bossert,Thomas J.; Larrañaga,Osvaldo; Giedion,Ursula; Arbelaez,José Jesus; Bowser,Diana M.
Fonte: World Health Organization Publicador: World Health Organization
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2003 EN
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OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relation between decentralization and equity of resource allocation in Colombia and Chile. METHODS: The "decision space" approach and analysis of expenditures and utilization rates were used to provide a comparative analysis of decentralization of the health systems of Colombia and Chile. FINDINGS: Evidence from Colombia and Chile suggests that decentralization, under certain conditions and with some specific policy mechanisms, can improve equity of resource allocation. In these countries, equitable levels of per capita financial allocations at the municipal level were achieved through different forms of decentralization - the use of allocation formulae, adequate local funding choices and horizontal equity funds. Findings on equity of utilization of services were less consistent, but they did show that increased levels of funding were associated with increased utilization. This suggests that improved equity of funding over time might reduce inequities of service utilization. CONCLUSION: Decentralization can contribute to, or at least maintain, equitable allocation of health resources among municipalities of different incomes.