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Impactos setoriais das crises das décadas de 1990 e 2000 sobre o comércio de Brasil e Argentina; Sectorial impacts of the crises of decades 1980 and 1990 on trade of Brazil and Argentina

Nogueira, Fábio Alves
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 27/02/2008 PT
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Ao longo das décadas de 1990 e 2000, Brasil e Argentina passaram por mudanças estruturais em suas economias para poderem contornar as dificuldades impostas pelos novos cenários econômicos internacional e doméstico. Nesse contexto, já não havia a possibilidade de controlar os fluxos de capitais como em décadas anteriores para equilibrar déficits comerciais. A integração econômica passou a ser vista como uma forma de expandir o comércio dos parceiros, o nível de emprego e de crescimento econômico. Os ganhos após as negociações do bloco foram consideráveis, marcados por interrupções decorrentes de crises externas e internas a Brasil e Argentina. Durante as crises os setores ineficientes manifestaram-se para protegerem seus mercados e adiar a queda das barreiras comerciais e tornaram mais nítidas as limitações da estrutura regulatória do comércio. Entre 1994 e 2005, alguns setores inicialmente inexpressivos ganharam participação maior em relação ao total comercializado, demonstrando a importância da criação de novos mercados para o crescimento de segmentos anteriormente sem demanda, como foi o caso do setor de equipamentos eletrônicos para o Brasil. Pela observação dos setores envolvidos na relação comercial...

Intra-industry trade, knowledge and adjustment costs

Leitão, Nuno Carlos
Fonte: Asian Network for Scientific Information Publicador: Asian Network for Scientific Information
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2011 ENG
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The international technology diffusions are associated with the changes in labour market. The empirical results show a negative correlation between the changes of employment and Marginal Intra-Industry Trade (MIIT). We also find a positive correlation between changes of employment and knowledge. The economic dimension and market structure are according to Smooth Adjustment Hypothesis (SAH.

The Politics of Financial Development: Evidence from Trade Liberalization

Braun, Matias; Raddatz, Claudio
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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Incumbents in various industries have different incentives to promote or oppose financial development. Changes in the relative strength of promoter and opponent industries thus result in changes in the political equilibrium level of financial development. We conduct an event study using a sample of 41 countries that liberalized trade during 1970 to 2000, and show that the strengthening of promoter relative to opponent industries resulting from liberalization is a good predictor of subsequent financial development. The benefits of developing the financial system are insufficient for financial development, and rents in particular hands appear to be necessary to achieve it.

Trends in Tariff Reforms and in the Structure of Wages

Galiani, Sebastian; Porto, Guido G.
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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This paper provides new evidence on the impacts of trade reforms on wages. We first introduce a model of trade that combines a noncompetitive wage-setting mechanism due to unions with a factor abundance hypothesis. The predictions of the model are then econometrically investigated using Argentine data. Instead of achieving identification by comparing industrial wages before and after one episode of trade liberalization, our strategy exploits the recent historical record of policy changes adopted by Argentina: from significant protection in the early 1970s, to the first episode of liberalization during the late 1970s, then back to a slowdown of reforms during the 1980s, and finally to the second episode of liberalization in the 1990s. These swings in trade policy represent broken trends in trade reforms that we can compare with observed trends in wages and wage inequality. We use unusual historical data sets of trends in tariffs, wages, and wage inequality to examine the structure of wages in Argentina and explore how it is affected by tariff reforms. We find that trade liberalization, ceteris paribus, reduces wages; industry tariffs reduce the industry skill premium; and conditional on the structure of tariffs at the industry level...

Declining Inequality in Latin America in the 2000s : The Cases of Argentina, Brazil, and Mexico

Lustig, Nora; Lopez-Calva, Luis F.; Ortiz-Juarez, Eduardo
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
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Between 2000 and 2010, the Gini coefficient declined in 13 of 17 Latin American countries. The decline was statistically significant and robust to changes in the time interval, inequality measures, and data sources. In-depth country studies for Argentina, Brazil, and Mexico suggest two main phenomena underlie this trend: a fall in the premium to skilled labor and more progressive government transfers. The fall in the premium to skills resulted from a combination of supply, demand, and institutional factors. Their relative importance depends on the country.

Jordan - Development Policy Review : A Reforming State in a Volatile Region

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
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Since the early 1990s, Jordan has initiated efforts toward far-reaching stabilization and structural reform. The reforms have aimed at laying the foundations for a reduced role of the state, private-sector-export-oriented-growth, employment, poverty reduction, and overall improvement in the welfare of the population. Due to this intensive effort, inflation has been reduced, the current account of the balance of payments has been stabilized, and budget deficits have been reduced. In addition, structural reforms have encompassed domestic taxation/subsidy policies, trade liberalization policies, monetary/financial sector policies, exchange rate policies, administered prices, and privatization. The reforms initiated since 1989 have made Jordan one of the leaders of reform in the Middle East and north Africa region, despite its experiencing several changes in government and adverse external shocks in the 1990s. The country has further integrated into the global economy, with a major shift in trade policy that included an Association Agreement with the European Union in 1999...

Comparative Advantage, International Trade, and Fertility

Do, Quy-Toan; Levchenko, Andrei; Raddatz, Claudio
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
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This paper analyzes theoretically and empirically the impact of comparative advantage in international trade on fertility. It builds a model in which industries differ in the extent to which they use female relative to male labor and countries are characterized by Ricardian comparative advantage in either female labor or male labor intensive goods. The main prediction of the model is that countries with comparative advantage in female labor intensive goods are characterized by lower fertility. This is because female wages and therefore the opportunity cost of children are higher in those countries. The paper demonstrates empirically that countries with comparative advantage in industries employing primarily women exhibit lower fertility. The analysis uses a geography-based instrument for trade patterns to isolate the causal effect of comparative advantage on fertility.

Republic of Sudan Diagnostic Trade Integration Study Update

World Bank Group
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Relatório
EN_US
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The Diagnostic Trade Integration Study (DTIS) update identifies priority actions in support of the Government of Sudan (GOS) commitment to increase trade and diversify the economy. The current study builds on the earlier 2008 DTIS by identifying the major factors holding back the increase of agricultural exports and economic diversification. The report identifies a package of measures that will support Sudan to more effectively realize its economic potential. The DTIS Update presents an updated action matrix that summarizes the recommended policy reforms. This matrix was validated with a wide variety of stakeholders in Khartoum in September 2014. Together, the action points will contribute to reducing trade costs, thereby enabling Sudanese enterprises and farmers to compete more successfully in regional and global markets and realize the GOS objectives of expanding and diversifying exports for increased economic growth. The recommendations accept that any changes in tariff schedules should be ‘revenue neutral,’ given the existing challenging fiscal situation.

Commodity Market Reform in Africa : Some Recent Experience

Akiyama, Takamasa; Baffes, John; Larson, Donald F.; Varangis, Panos
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
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Since the early 1980s, dramatic changes in export commodity markets, shocks associated with resulting price declines, and changing views on the role of the state have ushered in widespread reforms to agricultural commodity markets in Africa. The reforms significantly reduced government participation in the marketing and pricing of commodities. Akiyama, Baffes, Larson, and Varangis examine the background, causes, process, and consequences of these reforms and derive lessons for successful reforms from experiences in markets for four commodities important to Africa-cocoa, coffee, cotton, and sugar. The authors' commodity focus highlights the special features associated with these markets that affect the reform process. They complement the current literature on market reforms in Africa, where grain-market studies are more common. The authors suggest that the types of market interventions prior to reform are more easily classified by crop than by country. Consequently, there are significant commodity-specific differences in the initial conditions and in the outcomes of reforms related to these markets. But there are general lessons as well. The authors find that the key consequences of reform have been significant changes in or emergence of marketing institutions and a significant shift of political and economic power from the public to the private sector. In cases where interventions were greatest and reforms most complete...

Warming Up to Trade? Harnessing International Trade to Support Climate Change Objectives

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Environmental Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH
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This study on harnessing international trade to support climate change objectives assesses the following: 1) What are the main policy prescriptions for reducing greenhouse gases that are employed by OECD countries and how do they impact the competitiveness of their energy-intensive industries? 2) On account of the impact on competitiveness, is there is leakage of energy intensive industries from OECD countries to developing countries? 3) Under what conditions can one justify trade measures under the WTO regime? What are the impacts of levying trade measures on trade flows and emissions? 4) What are the underlying trade and investment barriers to the use of clean energy technologies in developing countries? 5) In addition to tariff and non-tariff barriers, are there other issues impacting the diffusion of clean energy technologies in developing countries? 6) Is liberalization of renewable and clean coal technologies a plausible solution to assisting developing countries in achieving a low-carbon growth path? 7) What conditions are necessary for negotiating a "climate-friendly" package under the current WTO framework? The key findings and recommendations of this report include: a) Industrial competitiveness in Kyoto implementing countries suffers more from energy efficiency standards than from carbon taxation policies; b) Industrial competitiveness affected by carbon taxation policies are often offset by "policy packages"; c) Some evidence supports leakage of carbon-intensive countries to developing countries; d) Trade measures can be justified only under certain conditions; e) The proposed EU "Kyoto Tariff" may hurt the United States' trade balance; f) Varied levels of tariffs are impediments to clean energy technology diffusion in developing countries.

Globalization and the Gender Wage Gap

Oostendorp, Remco H.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
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There are several theoretical reasons why globalization will have a narrowing as well as widening effect on the gender wage gap, but little is known about the actual impact, except for a number of country studies. The author provides a cross-country study of the impact of globalization on the occupational gender wage gap, based on the rarely used but most far-ranging survey of wages around the world, the International Labour Organization's October Inquiry. This annual survey was started in 1924 and contains a wealth of information on wages and the gender wage gap. For the period 1983-99, there is information on the gender wage gap in 161 narrowly defined occupations in more than 80 countries around the world. The author finds the following: (i) The occupational gender wage gap appears to be narrowing with increases in GDP per capita; (ii) There is a significantly narrowing impact of trade and foreign direct investment (FDI) net inflows on the occupational gender wage gap for low-skill occupations, both in poorer and richer countries...

Big Dragon, Little Dragons : China's Challenge to the Machinery Exports of Southeast Asia

Rahardja, Sjamsu
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
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This paper investigates the extent of China's export boom in machinery and analyzes trade in components and finished machinery between China and Southeast Asia. China has increased its world market share in machinery exports. The median relative unit value of its finished machinery exports has also risen. Yet the author finds no evidence that China's expansion in the world machinery market has squeezed the market shares of Southeast Asian machinery exports. Instead, components made by Southeast Asian countries are increasing in unit value and gaining market share in China.

Structural Change and Poverty Reduction in Brazil : The Impact of the Doha Round

Bussolo, Maurizio; Lay, Jann; van der Mensbrugghe, Dominique
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
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Over the medium time horizon, skill upgrading, differentials in sectoral technological progress, and migration of labor out of farming activities are some of the major structural adjustment factors shaping the evolution of an economy and its connected poverty trends. The main focus of the authors is understanding, for the case of Brazil, how a trade shock interacts with these structural forces and ascertaining whether it enhances or hinders medium-term poverty reduction. In particular, they consider the interactions between the migration of labor out of agriculture, a potentially important poverty reduction factor, and trade liberalization, which increases the price incentives to stay in agriculture. A recursive-dynamic computable general equilibrium model simulates Doha scenarios and compares them against a business as usual scenario. The authors estimate the poverty effects using a microsimulation model that primarily takes into account individuals' labor supply decisions. Their analysis shows that trade liberalization does contribute to structural poverty reduction. But unless increased productivity and stronger growth rates are attributed to trade reform, its contribution to medium-term poverty reduction is rather small.

Regional Gas Trade Projects in Arab Countries, Volumes 1 and 2

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Mining/Oil and Gas; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
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Arab countries hold about 29 percent of the world's proven gas reserves, but every country (except Qatar and Algeria) is short of the gas supply needed to meet its current and projected demand. The rapid growth in gas demand is mostly a consequence of a sharp increase in electricity consumption. Gas trade in the Arab world has been dominated by the objective of exporting gas in the form of liquefied natural gas (LNG) to points in Asia, Europe, and North America. Gas trade within the region is limited to rather small volumes, moved from Algeria to Tunisia and Morocco; from Egypt to Jordan, Syria, and Lebanon; and from Qatar to the United Arab Emirates (UAE) - all through pipelines. The shortage of gas in the Arab countries has become more pronounced, justifying the higher gas prices needed to secure imported gas or to encourage domestic gas production. Such changes in the landscape provide an impetus for the Arab world to optimize the region's gas resources, at least partly on the basis of meeting growing regional demand. The objective of this study is to assist the attempt by: (i) identifying the opportunities for gas trade through cross-border gas pipelines and LNG; (ii) assessing the economic and political aspects of the identified projects; (iii) presenting financing and implementation schemes that utilize the synergy between the public and private sector in project formulation and development; and (iv) reviewing the legal...

Trade Effects of Customs Reform; Evidence from Albania

Fernandes, Ana M.; Hillberry, Russell; Mendoza Alcántara, Alejandra
Fonte: World Bank Group, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank Group, Washington, DC
Tipo: Working Paper; Publications & Research; Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
EN_US
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Despite enormous academic interest in international trade costs and keen policy interest in efforts to mitigate them, so far there is very little hard evidence on the impacts of trade facilitation efforts. This paper exploits a dramatic reduction in the rate of physical inspections by Albanian customs to estimate the effects of fewer inspection-related delays on the level and composition of imports. In this setting, the paper finds evidence that the expected median number of days spent in Albanian customs falls by 7 percent when the probability that a shipment is inspected falls from 50 percent or more to under 50 percent. In turn, this reduction in time produces a 7 percent increase in import value. The paper finds evidence that the reforms favored imports from preferential trading partners, especially the European Union. There are also reform-induced changes in the composition of trade, including increases in average quantities and unit prices, the number of shipments, and the number of importing firms per product-country pair and the number of countries per firm-product pair. A back-of-the-envelope calculation suggests that the estimate of 7 percent import growth along an intensive margin is roughly consistent with a 0.36 percentage point reduction in average tariff equivalent trade costs. Applying this figure to the value of Albania's non-oil imports produces a reform-induced trade cost savings estimate of approximately US$12 million in 2012.

Reestruturação produtiva, experiência dos trabalhadores e atuação sindical : um estudo sobre a Votorantim Metais; Productive restructuring, workers experience and trade union practice : a study about Votorantim Metals

Marcilio Rodrigues Lucas
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 16/04/2010 PT
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Este trabalho visa analisar a reestruturação produtiva ocorrida na Votorantim Metais- Unidade Três Marias (VMTM), a partir da década de 1990 e as mudanças na ação sindical nesse contexto. O objetivo é compreender as estratégias e programas implementados pela empresa e a experiência dos trabalhadores, em termos de adesão e resistência, diante de tal processo, enfocando principalmente os impactos sobre a organização do sindicato local. A reestruturação produtiva da empresa, pertencente a um dos maiores grupos empresariais do Brasil, caracterizou-se por um conjunto de mudanças técnico-organizacionais que modificaram profundamente o cotidiano da fábrica, no qual se pode destacar alguns elementos centrais: 1) inserção de novas tecnologias que possibilitam maior controle e integração das cadeias produtivas; 2) redução, em torno de 70%, do efetivo direto de funcionários, através de demissões e terceirizações; 3) prolongamento da jornada dos turnos de revezamento (além do uso recorrente de horas-extras); 4) flexibilização das formas de remuneração, principalmente com a introdução, em 1996, do Programa de Participação nos Resultados; 5) introdução de uma série de programas de gestão e controle da força de trabalho...

The Eastward Enlargement Effects on Trade and FDI

Caetano, José; Galego, Aurora; Vieira, Carlos; Vieira, Isabel
Fonte: Berliner Wissenschafts-Verlag Publicador: Berliner Wissenschafts-Verlag
Tipo: Parte de Livro
ENG
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The process of international economic integration has been continuously reinforced over the past decade. Such phenomenon is especially visible at the regional level, with the increase of Regional Integration Agreements (RIA), such as Mercosur, ASEAN, NAFTA and the project of European Union (EU) Eastern enlargement. Trade and Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) flows are generally recognised as the two main channels of economic integration. Consequently, the most relevant issues in the debate on RIA relate to trade creation, trade diversion and to the possible reallocation of FDI and the respective economic effects. Since the beginning of the negotiation process for the Eastern enlargement of the EU, trade and FDI have played an important role in the approximation of member states and applicants. CEEC' transition phase to a market economy may now be considered as completed, since the geographical reorientation of trade seems to have reached its limits. Industrial recovery and rapidly rising levels of productivity in these countries induced changes in the sectoral composition of output, which will in turn influence trade patterns. The flows of FDI to the CEEC and the establishing of subcontracting agreements with EU industrial firms have become substantial...

Los acuerdos comerciales, la apuesta para el desarrollo económico; Trade agreements, the bet for economic development

Bohórquez López, Erika Gissette; Bernal, César
Fonte: Universidad Militar Nueva Granada; Facultad de Ciencias Económicas; Especialización en Gerencia en Comercio Internacional Publicador: Universidad Militar Nueva Granada; Facultad de Ciencias Económicas; Especialización en Gerencia en Comercio Internacional
Tipo: bachelorThesis; Trabajo de grado Formato: pdf; pdf
SPA
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Con la idea de liberalizar el comercio en los años 80’s se inicia el proceso de reformas comerciales basadas en los aranceles, regímenes laborales y modificaciones en el sistema financiero para tener una mejor distribución de los ingresos que se obtendrían por las transacciones del libre comercio. Los países apuestan a establecer caminos de libre comercio para resolver conflictos económicos y políticos, la manera es aplicando acuerdos de libre comercio entre países y tratar de expandirse a nivel internacional logrando mayor competitividad, fluidez del dinero en la economía y por consiguiente mejorar la calidad de vida de sus habitantes. Esta es la razón por la que incluso países desarrollados ejecutan acuerdos de libre comercio entre ellos intentando alentar a países en vía de desarrollo celebrando tratados de comercio similares con la premisa que la negociación arancelaria y de barreras no será igual, en ocasiones los países en vía de desarrollo no miden su capacidad de responder a mercados tecnológicamente fuertes y de producción en grandes volúmenes. Es claro que la economía mundial ha avanzado y los países por medio de herramientas socioeconómicas y políticas tratan de hacer alianzas para facilitar el comercio de bienes y servicios.; With the idea of liberalizing trade in the 80's the trade reform process based on tariffs...

Essays on International trade and economic growth

Giraldo Salazar, Iader
Fonte: Facultad de Economía Publicador: Facultad de Economía
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/doctoralThesis; info:eu-repo/semantics/acceptedVersion Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 27/10/2015 SPA
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At present, we are witnessing globalization as a truly worldwide phenomenon. Trade agreements among differing countries, a reduction in trade costs, the mobility of production factors, the free flow of information and so on are all proof of the present day era of globalization. Countries are trading with one another more and more every day and the effects of international trade on economies represent a central discussion in all economic spheres. In spite of increasing trade around the world and the promotion of globalization by multilateral organisms such as WTO and IMF, the effects of international trade are not yet clear. Economics literature concerning the effects of international trade on economic growth and welfare remains ambiguous in terms of both theoretical models and empirical research. The present thesis tries to contribute to the theoretical debate surrounding the effects of dynamic international trade, focusing in particular on the implications for economic growth, welfare and changes in the preferences of individuals.

Australia and the European Union in the World Trade Organisation: partners or adversaries?

Kenyon, Donald; Kunkel, John
Fonte: Carfax Publishing, Taylor & Francis Group Publicador: Carfax Publishing, Taylor & Francis Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Shared interests between Australia and the European Union (EU) in multilateral trade negotiations are increasing. However, the relationship in the WTO continues to be defined by conflicts over agriculture. This article examines the case for closer Australia-EU co-operation on shared interests in WTO negotiations while continuing to press for more rapid reform of EU agriculture policies. It traces the major changes in the interface between Australia and the EU in the WTO, including the re-structuring of the Australian economy over the past two decades and the more recent efforts by the EU to modify the trade impact of the Common Agriculture Policy (CAP) on world agriculture trade. The article concludes that closer co-operation between Australia and the EU in the WTO on shared interests would enhance Australia's influence in the multilateral trade system.