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Effect of Insecticide Applications in Soybeans on Trissolcus basalis (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae)

Orr, David B.; Boethel, David J.; Blake Layton, M.
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
EN
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Field studies were conducted to determine the effect of the primary insecticides that are applied to control Louisiana soybean insect pests on the survival of an important biological control agent of stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae). Adult egg parasitoids, Trissolcus basalis (Wollaston), were affected little by permethrin field applications, but methyl parathion had an adverse but short-lived effect on parasitoid survival. High levels of adult parasitoid mortality were observed only within the first 6 h following methyl parathion application. Neither insecticide affected emergence of parasitoids from their host eggs, suggesting that stink bug eggs provided a barrier to insecticide penetration. However, parasitoids apparently contacted insecticide residues when chewing through host egg shells to emerge, resulting in some mortality after emergence, caused by methyl parathion. The degree of this mortality was affected by three factors: parasitoid developmental stage at time of insecticide application, position of parasitized egg masses in the soybean canopy, and parasitoid gender. Overall, results of this study suggest a general compatibility between a major biological control agent of stink bugs, T. basalis, and insecticidal control of stink bugs and lepidopterous pests in Louisiana soybeans.

Field Trials and Laboratory Bioassays of CME 134, a New Insect Growth Regulator, Against Heliothis zea and Other Lepidopterous Pests of Soybeans

Ames Herbert, D.; James Harper, D.
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
EN
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We conducted field experiments in 1982 and 1983 in central Alabama to determine the effectiveness of CME 134, a new insect growth regulator with molt-inhibiting activity, on immature lepidopterous pests of soybeans including the soybean looper (Pseudoplusia includens [Walker]), the corn earworm (Heliothis zea [Boddie]), the green cloverworm (Plathypena scabra [Fabr.]), and the velvetbean caterpillar (Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner). CME 134 was applied in doses of 16.5, 33.0, 66.0, 132.0, and 264.0 g (AI)/ha. CME 134-treated plots remained almost completely free of lepidopterous pests for at least 55 days after application in the 1982 tests, demonstrating high residual activity. Results of laboratory experiments suggested that residual activity was maintained through larvicidal activity of CME 134 residues on leaf surfaces. Dosage-mortality responses were determined for CME 134 against Heliothis zea larvae by continuous feeding on diet media in which the product was incorporated. LC50 values following 7 days of exposure were 21.9, 18.2, and 24.0 μg (AI)/ml diet medium for first-, third-, and fourth-instar larvae, respectively. LC50 values based on total larval + pupal mortality in insects initially exposed in the same three instars were 2.8...

Effect of Threecornered Alfalfa Hopper (Homoptera: Membracidae) Feeding on Translocation and Nitrogen Fixation in Soybeans

Hicks, Patrick M.; Mitchell, Paula Levin; Dunigan, Edward P.; Newsom, L. D.; Bollich, Patrick K.
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
EN
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Greenhouse investigations were conducted to study the effect of girdling by the threecornered alfalfa hopper, Spissistilus festinus (Say), on translocation and nitrogen fixation in soybeans, Glycine max (L.) Merrill. Radiotracer studies with 14C glucose demonstrated that girdling of petioles effectively blocked the movement of assimilates in the phloem. Nodule number, nodule dry weight, root dry weight, leaf area, and nitrogen fixation activity were all significantly reduced by S. festinus feeding injury.

Timing, Formulation, and Persistence of a Nuclear Polyhedrosis Virus and a Microsporidium for Control of the Velvetbean Caterpillar (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in Soybeans

Richter, A. R.; Fuxa, J. R.
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
EN
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Nuclear polyhedrosis virus (AgNPV)was tested as a microbial insecticide for Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner (VBC)in soybeans. A maximum of 66 to 88% infection was achieved in three experiments. Certain of the AgNPV treatments significantly reduced VBC numbers by 7 to 11 days after application. Soybean yields in AgNPV-treated plots were significantly higher than those in control plots in one experiment but not significantly different from carbaryl-treated plots in another experiment. Percentages of infection and yield were similar after application of spray or dust formulations of AgNPV. VBC sampled from AgNPV plots in these experiments still had 18 to 29% infection rates by AgNPV after 1 to 3 years. Overall mean numbers of cadavers with the entomopathogenic fungus Nomuraearileyi (Farlow) Samson were significantly lower in AgNPV-treated plots than in control plots, but greater than in carbaryl-treated plots in one experiment. AgNPV also was sprayed in two additional experiments, initially as VBC populations were beginning to build and later as populations were reaching insecticide threshold levels. Both times of treatment resulted in comparable infection rates and significant decreases in VBC numbers. However, the earlier epizootic resulted in soybean yields significantly greater than those in late-treatment or control plots.

Evaluation of Guazatine Triacetate as an Antifeedant/Feeding Deterrent for the Green Cloverworm on Soybeans

Higgins, R. A.; Pedigo, L. P.
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
EN
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Laboratory and field trials to determine the antifeedant/deterrent efficacy of guazatine triacetate in reducing feeding damage by Plathypena scabra (F.) to soybeans were conducted in 1976–78. Short-term (48 h) laboratory and field dosage/respone equations were calculated. Both equations were tempered by the presence of foliar phytotoxicity thresholds as they approached 86 and 50% protection, respectively. Short-term mortality was nominal at all rates, although mortality increased as exposure time (>48 h) and application rate increased. Increased application rates depressed development in a curvilinear fashion. The total cumulative damage eventually sustained, under each treatment, varied inversely with application rate. No effective systemic antifeedant/deterrent action was indicated.

Effects of Vairimorpha necatrix in Sprays and Corn Meal on Heliothis Species in Tobacco, Soybeans, and Sorghum

Fuxa, J. R.; Brooks, W. M.
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
EN
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Vairimorpha necatrix (Kramer), a promising microbial control agent due to its virulence and prolificness in several lepidopterous pests, was evaluated as a microbial insecticide for the tobacco budworm, Heliothis virescens (F.), and corn earworm, H. zea (Boddie). Application in aqueous sprays at 2.5×1013 spores/ha did not adequately reduce density of budworm populations or damage in tobacco in spite of infection of up to 65% of the population. However, a V. necatrix-corn meal formulation, applied by hand above the tobacco vegetative bud at 2.5×1012 spores/ha, reduced budworm population density and damage to an extent comparable to a chemical insecticide or a Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner (Dipel®)-corn meal formulation. The hymenopterous parasites Campoletis sonorensis (Cameron) and Cardiochiles nigriceps Viereck were not infected by V. necatrix even when the parasites emerged from heavily infected budworms. Spray application of up to 3.2×1013 spores/ha did not adequately reduce H. zea populations or damage in soybeans or sorghum although infection of 99 and 72% of the host populations on the respective crops was attained. The microsporidium at the highest rate was...

Oviposition Preference of the Seedcorn Maggot for Various Developmental Stages of Soybeans

Ibrahim, Y. B.; Hower, A. A.
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
EN
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The relative attractiveness of the soybean plant to ovipositing Hylemya platura (Meigen) was studied in the laboratory. Seedcorn maggots deposited significantly more eggs near the base of newly emerged seedlings when given a choice of 5 stages of developing soybeans and only moist soil. When contained with a single stage of developing soybean, the females oviposited similar numbers of eggs adjacent to each stage. However, in this latter no-choice situation, females rarely oviposited during the 1st 3 days near any except newly emerged seedlings. Lima beans were significantly preferred over soybean seedlings as oviposition sites.

Populations of Corn Earworm and Associated Predators After Applications of Certain Soil-Applied Pesticides to Soybeans

Morrison, D. E.; Bradley, J. R.; Van Duyn, J. W.
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
EN
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Eggs, larvae, and associated insect predators of Heliothis zea (Boddie) were sampled in soybean plots treated with aldicarb, carbofuran, ethoprop, fensulfothion, and phorate. There was no ovipositional preference by the corn earworm for treated or untreated soybeans. However, aldicarb treated plots contained up to 7X more larvae than untreated plots or plots treated with other soil-applied pesticides. Numbers of Orius insidiosus (Say), Geocoris punctipes (Say), and Nabis spp. were inversely related to H. zea numbers. An overspray of methyl parathion resulted in a similar effect on H. zea and its predators as observed in aldicarb treated plots. Soybean yields were reduced in plots treated with aldicarb, methyl parathion, and a combination of these pesticides.

As micotoxinas e a segurança alimentar na soja armazenada.; Micotoxins and food safety in soybeans storage.

OLIVEIRA, M. A. de; LORINI, I.; MALLMANN, C. A.
Fonte: Brazilian Journal of Food Technology, nov. 2010. Publicador: Brazilian Journal of Food Technology, nov. 2010.
Tipo: Artigo em periódico indexado (ALICE)
PT_BR
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Micotoxinas associadas aos grãos são uma das principais causas de não conformidade em relação a alimentos seguros e as impurezas e/ou matérias estranhas presentes podem estar associadas à sua maior incidência. Amostras de grãos de soja e respectivas impurezas foram avaliadas na recepção e na expedição de uma Unidade Armazenadora de grãos da região norte do Estado do Paraná na safra 2008/2009. As micotoxinas avaliadas no Laboratório de Análises Micotoxicológicas (LAMIC, em Santa Maria-RS) foram: aflatoxinas (B1, B2, G1, G2), deoxinivalenol, nivalenol, ocratoxina A e zearalenona. Os resultados mostraram baixa ocorrência de micotoxinas em grãos de soja quando armazenados de forma correta. A grande fonte de contaminação por aflatoxina e zearalenona são as impurezas e/ou matérias estranhas permitidas na legislação brasileira até o limite de 1%. A legislação deve ser alterada e deve ser adotado o limite zero de impurezas, na etapa de expedição, visando garantir a segurança alimentar na cadeia produtiva da soja. Mycotoxins are an important contaminant on grains mainly on the impurities which coming with from the field during harvesting. Samples of soybean grain and their impurities were taken at reception of storage unit...

Avaliação da relação entre soja e produção de biodiesel.

HIRAKURI, M. H.; LAZZAROTTO, J. J.; AVILA, M. T. de
Fonte: In: CONGRESSO SOCIEDADE BRASILEIRA DE ECONOMIA, ADMINISTRAÇÃO E SOCIOLOGIA RURAL, 48., 2010, Campo Grande, MS. Tecnologias, desenvolvimento e integração social: anais. Campo Grande, MS: SOBER, 2010. Palestra 167. Publicador: In: CONGRESSO SOCIEDADE BRASILEIRA DE ECONOMIA, ADMINISTRAÇÃO E SOCIOLOGIA RURAL, 48., 2010, Campo Grande, MS. Tecnologias, desenvolvimento e integração social: anais. Campo Grande, MS: SOBER, 2010. Palestra 167.
Tipo: Artigo em anais de congresso (ALICE)
PT_BR
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O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a importância da producão de soja para o desenvolvimento do biodiesel no Brasil e o que representa o biocombustível para o mercado da oleaginosa. A análise de oferta e demanda por biodiesel revelou que as empresas apresentam capacidade produtiva para atender ao B5 e que as usinas da região sul são as mais eficientes, em relação às vendas. O estudo da expansão da produção de soja revelou que o seu cultivo está imerso em um contexto cercado por grandes movimentos e pressões por sustentabilidade ambiental. Embora o Brasil seja um grande exportador de soja ?in natura?, a tendência aponta para a evolução do volume produzido de óleo, o que, em grande parte, se deve ao aumento na produção do grão. Verificou-se que a dispersão do cultivo da soja em diferentes regiões do país, com escala de produção suficiente para atender à produção de volumes significativos de biodiesel, possibilitou combater os crônicos problemas logísticos existentes no agronegócio nacional. Por fim, a análise do Programa Nacional de Produção e Uso do Biodiesel confirmou que o óleo de soja é a matéria-prima que supre quase 80% da produção de biodiesel no Brasil. O desenvolvimento de outras fontes para a diversificação de matéria-prima para a produção de biodiesel...

Pathogenic variation of Phakopsora pachyrhizi populations in Brazil.

SOARES, R. M.; AKAMATSU, H. O.; YAMAOKA, Y.; YAMANAKA, N.; SUENAGA, K.
Fonte: Plant Management Network, St. Paul, 2010. Publicador: Plant Management Network, St. Paul, 2010.
Tipo: Artigo em anais de congresso (ALICE)
EN
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The obligate basidiomycete Phakopsora pachyrhizi is the causal agent of soybean rust that has potential to reduce the yield of soybean drastically. Soybean production in Brazil has been threatened by the rust since the pathogen was first discovered in 2001. To understand pathogenic variation of the rust populations in South America, an evaluation system for soybean rust resistance has been constructed using a set of 16 differential varieties. In this study, the evaluation system was used to investigate pathogenic variation among the P. pachyrhizi populations in Brazil. Samples of P. pachyrhizi were collected from the diseased soybeans in Brazil in the 2007-2008 and 2008-2009 soybean cultivation seasons. In the first season, two rust samples showed similar pattern of the infection types on the differential set, suggesting that the same or similar pathogen population was present in the two locations. The other samples were likely different pathogenic populations. In the second season, different patterns of the infection types were found among the samples. Comparison of the evaluation data from the two seasons demonstrated that pathogenic variation between the seasons was detected in the populations from Rio Grande do Sul and Paraná but was not remarkable in those from Rondônia. This study provides useful knowledge about P. pachyrhizi populations in Brazil to identify the resistant soybean genotypes and target effective cultivars against certain pathogen populations.; 2010; Disponível em: Acesso em 5 abr. 2010. Edição do Proceedings of the National Soybean Rust Symposium...

Preferência de parasitismo de Telenomus remus em ovos de Spodoptera frugiperda nas culturas de algodão, milho e soja.

POMARI, A. F.; BUENO, A. de F.; BUENO, R. C. O. de F.; MENEZES JUNIOR, A. de O.; FONSECA, A. C. P. F.
Fonte: In: CONGRESSO BRASILEIRO DE DEFENSIVOS AGRÍCOLAS NATURAIS, 5., 2011, Jaguariúna. [Anais...]. Jaguariúna: Embrapa Meio Ambiente, 2011. Pôster 64. Publicador: In: CONGRESSO BRASILEIRO DE DEFENSIVOS AGRÍCOLAS NATURAIS, 5., 2011, Jaguariúna. [Anais...]. Jaguariúna: Embrapa Meio Ambiente, 2011. Pôster 64.
Tipo: Artigo em anais de congresso (ALICE) Formato: 1 CD-ROM.; 4 p.
PT_BR
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Avaliou-se a atratividade do parasitoide de ovos Telenomus remus às culturas de algodão, milho e soja e ainda, a sua atratividade por plantas com e sem herbivoria causada por Spodoptera frugiperda. Para tanto, foi realizado um experimento, em esquema fatorial 3 (culturas) x 2 (herbivoria), em condições de semi-campo (telados), sem condições climáticas controladas. Os tratamentos utilizados foram: plantas de algodão, milho e soja com e sem herbivoria. Em telados de 24m², foram dispostos de forma concêntrica, seis vasos retangulares sendo dois de cada cultura (1 com presença e 1 com ausência de herbivoria). No ponto central foram liberados cerca de 300 parasitoides e o parasitismo foi permitido por 24h. Após o parasitismo as cartelas foram retiradas e individualizadas até a emergência dos parasitoides. O parâmetro biológico avaliado foi a porcentagem de parasitismo. Os dados climáticos foram obtidos através da utilização do aparelho digital ?data logger?. Houve diferença significativa entre os parasitismos obtidos nas diferentes culturas, sendo o maior encontrado em algodão e o menor em soja. Quando relacionadas às plantas com e sem herbivoria, não foi observada diferença entre os tratamentos. Assim, sugere-se que a resposta do parasitoide foi diretamente influenciada pelos estímulos químicos presentes nos ovos que alteraram favoravelmente o comportamento de T. remus. Parasitism preference of Telenomus remus in Spodoptera frugiperda eggs by cotton...

Transaction costs arising from breaches of legal contracts - The case of judicial breaches of contracts of anticipated sale contracts of soybeans in Brazil.

ALVES, A. L. A.; WANDER, A. E.
Fonte: In: IN: TROPENTAG 2011: CONFERENCE ON INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH ON FOOD SECURITY, NATURAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT, Bonn, 2011. Development on the margin: book of abstracts. Bonn: University of Bonn, 2011. Publicador: In: IN: TROPENTAG 2011: CONFERENCE ON INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH ON FOOD SECURITY, NATURAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT, Bonn, 2011. Development on the margin: book of abstracts. Bonn: University of Bonn, 2011.
Tipo: Resumo em anais de congresso (ALICE)
EN
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Anticipated sales of commodities reached a significant importance in modern economics. They represent the main mechanism of economic exchange and of guarantee of fulfilment of mutual obligation commitments. In Brazil, the anticipated sale of commodities is one of the main funding mechanisms of agribusiness, particularly for commodities like soybeans and corn. In this scheme, part of the production is bought and paid by the buyer during planting of the crops. Contracts are instruments designed to ensure greater legal certainty to economic transactions. Efficient economies are governed by rules of public and private character, but private arrangements have special focus on these scenarios, and its efficiency is directly proportional to the degree of reliability in fulfiling obligations. Brazil?s agribusiness is one of the economic sectors most susceptible to the effects of judicial decisions, because it is also highly regulated in comparison to other areas like trade and services.; 2011

Identification of novel soybean microRNAs involved in abiotic and biotic stresses.

KULCHESKI, F. R.; OLIVEIRA, L. F. V.; MOLINA, L. G.; ALMERAO, M. P.; RODRIGUES, F. A.; MARCOLINO, J.; BARBOSA, J. F.; STOLF-MOREIRA, R.; NEPOMUCENO, A. L.; MARCELINO-GUIMARÃES, F. C.; ABDELNOOR, R. V.; NASCIMENTO, L. C.; CARAZZOLLE, M. F.; PEREIRA, G. A.
Fonte: BMC Genomics, v. 12, n. 307, jun. 2011. Publicador: BMC Genomics, v. 12, n. 307, jun. 2011.
Tipo: Artigo em periódico indexado (ALICE) Formato: 17 p.
PT_BR
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Background: Small RNAs (19-24 nt) are key regulators of gene expression that guide both transcriptional and posttranscriptional silencing mechanisms in eukaryotes. Current studies have demonstrated that microRNAs (miRNAs) act in several plant pathways associated with tissue proliferation, differentiation, and development and in response to abiotic and biotic stresses. In order to identify new miRNAs in soybean and to verify those that are possibly water deficit and rust-stress regulated, eight libraries of small RNAs were constructed and submitted to Solexa sequencing. Results: The libraries were developed from drought-sensitive and tolerant seedlings and rust-susceptible and resistant soybeans with or without stressors. Sequencing the library and subsequent analyses detected 256 miRNAs. From this total, we identified 24 families of novel miRNAs that had not been reported before, six families of conserved miRNAs that exist in other plants species, and 22 families previously reported in soybean. We also observed the presence of several isomiRNAs during our analyses. To validate novel miRNAs, we performed RT-qPCR across the eight different libraries. Among the 11 miRNAs analyzed, all showed different expression profiles during biotic and abiotic stresses to soybean. The majority of miRNAs were up-regulated during water deficit stress in the sensitive plants. However...

Biologia de Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas, 1851) (Hemiptera: pentatomidae) em diferentes pragas de soja.

DENEZ, M. D.
Fonte: 2013. Publicador: 2013.
Tipo: Teses/dissertações (ALICE) Formato: 41 f.
PT_BR
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RESUMO: O controle biológico é um dos principais componentes do MIP na busca pelo equilibrio ambiental. Entre os insetos que atuam nesse tipo de controle, os predadores tem se destacado de forma expressiva no campo. Os percevejos do gênero Podisus sp. são exemplos de predadores generalistas, presentes em diversos habitats, tendo relevante papel como agentes do controle biológico de diferentes pragas de importância agrícola, devido a sua alta capacidade predatória. Entretanto ainda falta muitas informações sobre a biologia e potencial de predação desse inseto se alimentando das pragas da soja, visto que o tamanho e qualidade nutricional de cada presa impactará diretamente no seu desenvolvimento e multiplicação. Visando respaldar estratégias de controle biológico, com esse predador, que sejam eficazes na prática, o presente trabalho objetivou estudar os aspectos biológicos de Podisus nigrispinus, alimentado-se de lagartas de Spodoptera frugiperda, S. cosmioides, Anticarsia gemmatalis e ovos de Euschistus heros, bem como avaliar o seu potencial predador no controle dessas pragas da soja. Para isso, foi realizado criação massal dos lepidópteros mencionados e de E. heros, além do P. nigrispinus afim de se obter insetos suficientes para instalação do experimento. Os bioensaios foram conduzidos em laboratório...

Biological and molecular characterization of an isolate of Tobacco streak virus obtained from soybeans in Brazil.

ALMEIDA, A. M. R.; SAKAI, J.; OLIVEIRA, T. G. O.; BELINTANI, P.; KITAJIMA, E. W.; SOUTO, E. R.; NOVAES, T. G. de; NORA, P. S.
Fonte: Fitopatologia Brasileira, Brasília, v. 30, n. 4, p. 366-373, July/Aug. 2005. Publicador: Fitopatologia Brasileira, Brasília, v. 30, n. 4, p. 366-373, July/Aug. 2005.
Tipo: Artigo em periódico indexado (ALICE)
EN
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A virus was isolated from soybean (Glycine max) plants with symptoms of dwarfing and bud blight in Wenceslau Braz County, Paraná, Brazil. The host range and properties resembled those of Tobacco streak virus (TSV). The purified virus showed three peaks in a frozen sucrose gradient. Antiserum was produced and the virus was serologically related to TSV. Electron microscopy detected 28 nm spherical particles. Coat protein (CP) had a Mr of 29.880 Da. A fragment of 1028 nt was amplified, cloned and sequenced. One open reading frame with 717 nt was identified and associated to the CP. The CP gene shared 83% identity with the sequence of TSV CP from white clover (Trifolium repens) (GenBank CAA25133). This is the first report of the biological and molecular characterization of TSV isolated from soybeans. It is proposed that this isolate be considered a strain of TSV named TSV-BR.; 2005

Propriedades físicas de snacks e farinhas pré-gelatinizadas de coprodutos de arroz e soja em função das variáveis de extrusão; Physical properties of snacks and pre-gelatinized flour byproducts of rice and soybeans in terms of the variables extrusion

Coutinho, Lairy Silva
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Goiás; Brasil; UFG; Programa de Pós-graduação em Ciência e Tecnologia de Alimentos (EAEA); Escola de Agronomia e Engenharia de Alimentos - EAEA (RG) Publicador: Universidade Federal de Goiás; Brasil; UFG; Programa de Pós-graduação em Ciência e Tecnologia de Alimentos (EAEA); Escola de Agronomia e Engenharia de Alimentos - EAEA (RG)
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: application/pdf
POR
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The rice processing industries currently designed its most byproducts generated during processing, such as rice bran and broken rice grains for animal feed. However, they are nutritionally rich and interesting human consumption. Therefore, it becomes interesting to use these for the development of new products. The soy industry also uses okara (residue coming from the aqueous extract of soy) more for animal feed. For human consumption is less used, although it has high content of protein, lipids and is a source of energy. Thus, this study aimed to formulate snacks and pre-gelatinized flour with coproducts broken grains and rice bran and soybean okara black and study the effect of extrusion variables (temperature and humidity) on the physical, chemical and technological characteristics of products, processed under various humidity (12 to 20 g.100 g-1) and extrusion temperatures (60 to 110 °C). For these analyzes was used official methodologies. Was performed desirability of snacks considering expansion index, specific volume and color parameter chroma a *. The snack of higher desirability was prepared at moisture condition in the mixture of 12 g.100 g-1 and at temperature of 85 ° C. As for the pre-gelatinized flour, moisture conditions for extrusion of mixtures influenced the viscoamilograficos aspects and texture...

Translocação de Co e Mo aplicados em diferentes épocas na cultura da soja; Translocation of Co and Mo applied in different times in soybeans

Moraes, Leila Maria de Freitas
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Uberlândia Publicador: Universidade Federal de Uberlândia
Tipo: Dissertação
POR
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O presente experimento teve como objetivo verificar a translocação de Co e Mo aplicados em diferentes épocas do desenvolvimento da cultura da soja, observando a sua presença em nódulos radiculares, folhas e grãos da soja. O experimento foi instalado na Fazenda Canadá, localizada em Uberlândia, MG. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos casualizados, contendo sete tratamentos e seis repetições. Cada parcela conteve 12 linhas de 11 m de comprimento e espaçadas de 0,45 m. A cultivar plantada foi a BRSMG-68. A adubação de plantio foi de 360 kg ha-1, da fórmula 00-20-10. As sementes foram inoculadas com 500g de inoculante turfoso, para 50 kg de semente, e as fontes usadas de Co e Mo foram, respectivamente, cloreto de cobalto e molibdato de sódio. Os tratamentos consistiram das seguintes épocas de aplicação dos micronutrientes: 1) testemunha (sem aplicação); 2) via semente; 3) estádio V4; 4) estádio V6; 5) estádio R1; 6) estádio R3; e 7) via semente e estádio R3. Nos tratamentos 2, 3, 4, 5 e 6, utilizaram-se as doses de 2,5 g ha-1 de Co e 80 g ha-1 de Mo. Para o tratamento 7, na semente utilizou-se 2,5 g ha-1 de Co e 20 g ha-1 de Mo, enquanto que no estádio R3 aplicou-se 400 g ha-1 de Mo. A partir da aplicação...

Long-Term Drivers of Food Prices

Baffes, John; Dennis, Allen
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
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It is becoming increasingly apparent that the post-2004, across-the-board, commodity price increases, which initially appeared to be a spike similar to the ones experienced during the early 1950s (Korean War) and the 1970s (oil crises), have a more permanent character. From 1997-2004 to 2005-12 nominal prices of energy, fertilizers, and precious metals tripled, metal prices went up by more than 150 percent, and most food prices doubled. Such price increases, especially in food commodities, not only fueled a debate on their key causes, but also alarmed government officials, leading to calls for coordinated policy actions. This paper examines the relative contribution of various sector and macroeconomic drivers to price changes of five food commodities (maize, wheat, rice, soybeans, and palm oil) by applying a reduced-form econometric model on 1960-2012 annual data. The drivers include stock-to-use ratios, crude oil and manufacturing prices, the United States dollar exchange rate, interest rate, and income. Based on long-run elasticity estimates (approximately -0.25 for the stock-to-use ratios...

Behavior of rr soybeans subjected to different formulations and rates of glyphosate in the reproductive period

Albrecht, A. J. P.; Albrecht, L. P.; Krenchinski, F. H.; Placido, H. F.; Lorenzetti, J. B.; Victoria Filho, R.; Barroso, A. A. M.
Fonte: Univ Federal Vicosa Publicador: Univ Federal Vicosa
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 851-859
ENG
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Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES); Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP); Recent studies indicate that glyphosate applied in post-emergence in RR soybean can eventually cause phytotoxic effects. However, there are many questions that need to be clarified in the scientific and technical contexts, involving the issue of RR soybeans regarding the use of glyphosate. This study has assessed the impact of the application of different doses and formulations of glyphosate in the reproductive period of RR soybean (R1 stage). For that purpose, an experiment in the field was conducted in two harvests (2011/12 and 2012/13), in which a 2 x 5 factorial design was used (formulations versus doses) totaling 10 treatments. In these two experiments the variables related to agronomic performance were: phytotoxicity (7, 14, 21 and 28 days after application), plant height, number of pods per plant, yield and weight of 100 grains (end of soy cycle). The results obtained allowed characterizing phytotoxicity and damages to the height and yield in RR soybean, with increasing rates of glyphosate applied in the reproductive period.; Resultados de pesquisas recentes indicam que o glyphosate aplicado em pós-emergência na soja RR pode...