Página 10 dos resultados de 806 itens digitais encontrados em 0.004 segundos

Homicide and public security indicator trends in the city of Sao Paulo between 1996 and 2008: a time-series ecological study

Tourinho Peres, Maria Fernanda; de Almeida, Juliana Feliciano; Vicentin, Diego; Ruotti, Caren; Nery, Marcelo Batista; Cerda, Magdalena; Cardia, Nancy; Adorno, Sergio
Fonte: ABRASCO; RIO DE JANEIRO Publicador: ABRASCO; RIO DE JANEIRO
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.81%
The scope of this paper was to analyze the association between homicides and public security indicators in Sao Paulo between 1996 and 2008, after monitoring the unemployment rate and the proportion of youths in the population. A time-series ecological study for 1996 and 2008 was conducted with Sao Paulo as the unit of analysis. Dependent variable: number of deaths by homicide per year. Main independent variables: arrest-incarceration rate, access to firearms, police activity. Data analysis was conducted using Stata. IC 10.0 software. Simple and multivariate negative binomial regression models were created. Deaths by homicide and arrest-incarceration, as well as police activity were significantly associated in simple regression analysis. Access to firearms was not significantly associated to the reduction in the number of deaths by homicide (p>0,05). After adjustment, the associations with both the public security indicators were not significant. In Sao Paulo the role of public security indicators are less important as explanatory factors for a reduction in homicide rates, after adjustment for unemployment rate and a reduction in the proportion of youths. The results reinforce the importance of socioeconomic and demographic factors for a change in the public security scenario in Sao Paulo.

A mulher detenta, a sua saúde sexual e sua sexualidade: revisão sistemática da literatura brasileira sobre atuação da enfermagem neste processo; Sexual health and sexuality of inmate woman: systematic review of Brazilian literature about the nursing contribution in this process

Silva, Elaine Mara da
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 13/09/2013 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.81%
A complexidade que caracteriza o sistema penitenciário brasileiro não exclui o encarceramento feminino. A mulher, ao ser detida para cumprir pena pelo seu ato infracional ou delituoso, passa por momentos de conflitos consigo mesma em função da nova realidade que se apresenta, a da privação de liberdade, que indubitavelmente afeta a sua saúde sexual e consequentemente a sua sexualidade somando a esse processo, a falta de assistência nesse sentido. Baseando nestes referenciais, o presente estudo objetivou fazer uma reflexão perante a literatura existente sobre a possível contribuição da enfermagem na saúde sexual e na sexualidade da mulher detenta, tendo em vista as condições de vulnerabilidade em que ela é exposta às doenças sexualmente transmissíveis no encarceramento. A metodologia utilizada apropriou-se da revisão sistemática da literatura brasileira, cujo propósito foi proceder ao levantamento de dados sobre essas questões , considerando a importância de sintetizar e categorizar os estudos primários realizados no Brasil, no período de 1990 a 2013,tendo em vista, o assunto em apreço. A amostra foi constituída de 14 estudos dos quais, foram identificadas as situações limites através das circunstâncias apresentadas pelos profissionais de enfermagem nas unidades prisionais...

A reinvenção da prisão: a expansão prisional no Estado de São Paulo e as consequências do encarceramento massivo (1985-2010)

Barros, Rodolfo Arruda Leite de
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP) Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP)
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: vi, 220 f. : il. color.
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.81%
Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES); Pós-graduação em Ciências Sociais - FFC; Este trabalho discute o rápido crescimento do sistema prisional no Estado de São Paulo ocorrido nas três últimas décadas (1985 – 2010) buscando compreender quais foram as dinâmicas sociais e políticas que impulsionaram a construção das unidades prisionais e de que maneira as decisões que coordenaram essa expansão prisional podem ser vistas como uma política pública problemática. Desta maneira, o trabalho retoma a história e os principais acontecimentos que marcaram o funcionamento do sistema prisional no Estado e as políticas públicas diretamente relacionadas a sua administração. Neste ponto, foi dado destaque às crescentes instabilidades no sistema prisional (caracterizadas pelo teor das rebeliões e da ação de grupos organizados no interior das prisões) e no modo pelo qual essas pressões impulsionaram políticas públicas que priorizaram a expansão de vagas no sistema. Para qualificar essa investigação, também realizamos uma retomada do debate mais amplo que envolve as tendências da prisão na época contemporânea e sobre as interpretações acerca do revigoramento das medidas penais ocorrida na maioria dos países ocidentais...

Controle penal atuarial e prisão cautelar

Teixeira, Daniela Felix
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina Publicador: Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: 1 v.| il., gafs., tabs.
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.81%
Dissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro de Ciências Jurídicas, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Direito, Florianópolis, 2009.; A presente Dissertação de Mestrado em Direito do Curso de Pós-Graduação em Direito da Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, tem como tema principal as Políticas Criminais para segurança pública e intitula-se CONTROLE PENAL ATUARIAL E PRISÃO CAUTELAR: o modelo de segurança pública no Município de Florianópolis (2004 a 2008). Pretende-se com o trabalho a pesquisa qualitativa dos dados constantes nos Registros Carcerários do Presídio Público Masculino de Florianópolis/SC, entre os anos de 2004 a 2008, objetivando traçar o perfil sociológico dos presos daquele espaço-tempo, mapear as condutas típicas cometidas e o tempo médio de encarceramento em regime cautelar, compreendido pelas prisões em flagrante delito, temporária e preventiva. Para tanto, necessário se faz a escolha pelo método de abordagem dedutivo, por via do procedimento monográfico, utilizando-se das técnicas de pesquisa bibliográfica e documental. A dissertação estrutura-se em três capítulos delimitados pelos temas centrais do debate: o modelo atuarial de controle penal, a segurança pública e as prisões cautelares. O Capítulo 1 aborda o que se denomina por modelo atuarial de controle penal...

É possível humanizar a vida atrás das grades? Uma etnografia do método de gestão carcerária APAC

Vargas, Laura Jimena Ordóñez
Fonte: Universidade de Brasília Publicador: Universidade de Brasília
Tipo: Tese
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.81%
Tese (doutorado)—Universidade de Brasília, Instituto de Ciências Sociais, Departamento de Antropologia, Programa de Pós-graduação em Antropologia Social, 2011.; Centrada no tema da relação entre poder e vida, a presente tese, consiste no estudo detalhado de um experimento institucional religioso no campo da política criminal brasileira: as Associações de Proteção e Assistência aos Condenados – APACs. Ao propor a humanização da vida prisional e a recuperação de homens e mulheres privados da liberdade como finalidades genuínas, afirmam-se como a revolução das prisões. O presente trabalho é uma etnografia sobre os modos como este modelo de prisão, – que representa uma teoria e um paradigma de ação, respaldado em uma particular visão sobre a vida humana –, cria, produz e instaura um novo sujeito preso, um tipo particular de humanização e uma vida comunitária intramuros. É o aporte desta etnografia, que ao abordar as modificações introduzidas no encarceramento pelo Método APAC, permite entrever desdobramentos menos visíveis de toda e qualquer solução prisional em que nosso paradigma de poder aposta, incluindo a mais obediente da lei e bem intencionada. ______________________________________________________________________________ ABSTRACT; Focused on the theme of the relationship between power and life...

Lei e prisão : discursos de mulheres estrangeiras sobre o sistema jurídico-penal português

Moreira, Tânia Marlene Teixeira
Fonte: Universidade do Minho Publicador: Universidade do Minho
Tipo: Trabalho de Conclusão de Curso
Publicado em //2011 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.81%
Dissertação de mestrado integrado em Psicologia (área de especialização em Psicologia da Justiça); Ainda que uma realidade instalada, à criminalidade feminina e estrangeira em Portugal pouca atenção tem sido prestada pelos campos do saber científico. Os quadros teóricos existentes postulam uma atuação do sistema de Justiça português segundo uma “lente” hegemónica que parece resultar em prejuízo de grupos minoritários. Assim e concretizada na figura de “Mulher Estrangeira”, a coligação de fatores de raça e género parece representar um estatuto de risco a uma, ainda mais, severa criminalização perante a prática de condutas delituosas: quer pela pertença a uma classe (mulheres transgressoras) que quebra os valores sociais patriarcalmente definidos quer por se constituir como persona non grata numa sociedade sobre-nacionalista pouco motivada para sua integração. Tendo por base estes pressupostos, com o presente estudo pretende-se perceber como se reflete, nos discursos de mulheres estrangeiras não residentes, a experiência resultante da atuação dos sistemas de controlo criminal ao nível da caracterização do sistema jurídico-penal português. Os dados foram recolhidos através da realização de entrevistas semiestruturadas a 43 mulheres de nacionalidade estrangeira detidas em Portugal...

Physical violence against patients with mental disorders in Brazil: sex differences in a cross-sectional study

Oliveira,Helian Nunes de; Machado,Carla Jorge; Guimarães,Mark Drew Crosland
Fonte: Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo Publicador: Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.81%
OBJECTIVES: Patients with mental illness are more exposed to violence than the general population. This study assessed factors associated with lifetime physical violence against these patients stratified by sex in Brazil. METHODS: This is a National cross-sectional multicenter study with a representative sample of 2,475 patients randomly selected from 26 public mental health services. Logistic regression was used to evaluate factors associated with physical violence and crude (OR) and adjusted odds ratios (aOR) with 95% confidence interval were estimated. Statistical level considered was 0.05. RESULTS: The prevalence of lifetime physical violence against mental patients was similar for women (57.6%) and men (57.8%). Physical violence against women was independently associated with: previous psychiatric hospitalizations (aOR = 2.09), lifetime STD (aOR = 1.75), lifetime alcohol consumption (aOR = 1.59), age of sexual debut (< 16 y.o.) (aOR = 1.40), lifetime sex under alcohol/drugs use (aOR = 2.08), having received/offered money for sex (aOR = 1.73) and lifetime incarceration (aOR = 1.69). Among men, associated factors were: age (18-40 y.o.) (aOR = 1.90), history of homelessness (aOR = 1.71), previous psychiatric hospitalization (aOR = 1.39)...

High prevalence of hepatitis C infection in a Brazilian prison: identification of risk factors for infection

Guimarães,Thaís; Granato,Celso F. H.; Varella,Drauzio; Ferraz,Maria Lúcia G.; Castelo,Adauto; Kallás,Esper Georges
Fonte: Brazilian Society of Infectious Diseases Publicador: Brazilian Society of Infectious Diseases
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2001 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.81%
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) causes infectious hepatitis worldwide. It is transmitted mainly by blood products and sharing of intravenous paraphernalia during illicit drug use. High prevalence rates have been described among specific groups considered to be at higher risk for HCV infection, including prison inmates. The objectives of this study were: to determine the HCV seroprevalence among inmates of Casa de Detenção de São Paulo; to identify risk factors for HCV infection; and to compare the seroprevalence of HCV to other blood borne or sexually transmitted diseases. From December, 1993, to January, 1994, a total of 779 inmates were interviewed to collect information on sociodemographic status, sexual behavior, and past experience with illicit drugs. Blood samples were obtained from 756 inmates for serological tests. 310 (41%) blood samples were positive for anti-HCV, 425 (56.2%) were negative, and 21 (2.8%) showed indeterminate results. In this population, we found a seroprevalence of 13.7% for HIV, 3.3% for syphilis (VDRL), and 68.1% for hepatitis B virus previous infection. Four variables were each identified as associated with a positive anti-HCV serologic test: a positive VDRL (OR = 2.63 IC 95% 1.08 to 6.36); a time of current imprisonment longer than 130 months (OR = 2.44 IC 95% 1.04 to 5.71); previous incarceration at Casa de Detenção de São Paulo (OR = 1.73 IC 95% 1.19 to 2.52) and; illicit drug use before admission to the Casa de Detenção de São Paulo (OR = 1.64 IC 95% 1.15 to 2.33). The seroprevalence of HCV antibodies among the study population was high (41%)...

Exposure to violence in incarcerated youth from the city of São Paulo

Huculak,Susan; McLennan,John D.; Bordin,Isabel A. S.
Fonte: Associação Brasileira de Psiquiatria - ABP Publicador: Associação Brasileira de Psiquiatria - ABP
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/09/2011 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.81%
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine the extent of exposure to community violence among delinquent Brazilian youth in the 12-month period prior to their incarceration and to identify factors associated with this exposure. METHOD: With an oversampling of girls, a cross-section of youth under 18 years of age from juvenile detention units in the city of São Paulo, Brazil completed a structured interview. Key items related to exposure to violence (witnessed and experienced) were drawn from the Social and Health Assessment questionnaire to cover the 12-month period prior to incarceration. RESULTS: Participants (n = 325, 89% boys) reported high rates of exposure to violence with largely similar levels for boys and girls. Being threatened with physical harm, being beaten or mugged and/ or shot at were the most common forms of violence experienced. After controlling for demographic and family variables, the fact of having peers involved in risk behavior, easy access to guns and previous involvement with the justice system were associated with witnessed violence; whereas having slept on the street was the only variable associated with experienced violence. CONCLUSION: This group of youth was exposed to high levels of violence and other adverse experiences. Future research should examine the effectiveness of strategies aimed at reducing the exposure to violence of high-risk youth.

Prospective, randomised, controlled trial comparing suture needle drainage and argon laser drainage of subretinal fluid.

Aylward, G W; Orr, G; Schwartz, S D; Leaver, P K
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /08/1995 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.81%
AIMS--This study was designed to compare suture needle drainage (SND) with argon laser drainage (ALD) of subretinal fluid. METHODS--A prospective, randomised, controlled, clinical trial was carried out on 93 patients undergoing external drainage of subretinal fluid during scleral buckling surgery for rhegmatogenous retinal detachment. The incidence of successful drainage, incidence of subretinal haemorrhage, incidence of retinal incarceration, and incidence of retinal perforation were determined. RESULTS--The success rate was 97.9% in the ALD group and 84.8% in the SND group (difference-13.1%, 95% CI-26.4% to 2.0%). The incidence of clinically significant subretinal haemorrhage was 4.3% in the ALD group compared with 28.3% in the SND group (difference 24.0%, 95% CI 7.6% to 40.4%). The incidence of incarceration was comparable in each group. There were no cases of retinal perforation. CONCLUSIONS--The use of ALD was associated with a higher rate of successful SRF drainage, and a lower incidence of clinically significant subretinal haemorrhage than SND. ALD is preferred when an endolaser is available.

Comparison of a New ESAT-6/CFP-10 Peptide-Based Gamma Interferon Assay and a Tuberculin Skin Test for Tuberculosis Screening in a Moderate-Risk Population

Porsa, Emaeil; Cheng, Lee; Seale, Michael M.; Delclos, George L.; Ma, Xin; Reich, Robert; Musser, James M.; Graviss, Edward A.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /01/2006 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.81%
Screening for latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) with Mantoux tuberculin skin test (TST) has many limitations, including false-positive results due to exposure to Mycobacterium other than tuberculosis (TB) and BCG vaccination. A total of 474 adult inmates in a county jail were screened for LTBI using TST and a new ESAT-6/CFP-10 peptide-based whole-blood gamma interferon (IFN-γ) assay. LTBI prevalence was 9.0 and 5.4% as determined by TST and IFN-γ assay, respectively. Overall, agreement between test results was 90% (κ = 0.25). Positive TST results were significantly associated with increased age (odds ratio [OR], 1.04; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01 to 1.08), African-American ethnicity (OR, 4.97; 95% CI, 1.58 to 15.68), foreign birth (OR, 20.20; 95% CI, 4.21 to 97.02) and prior incarceration (OR, 6.19; 95% CI, 1.48 to 25.95). Positive IFN-γ assay results were significantly associated with African-American ethnicity (OR, 5.58; 95% CI, 1.16 to 26.74). Factors associated with statistically significant discordance between TST and IFN-γ assay results were African-American ethnicity (OR, 0.29; 95% CI, 0.11 to 0.77), foreign birth (OR, 0.23; 95% CI, 0.07-0.80), and prior incarceration (OR, 0.06; 95% CI, 0.01-0.50). Among subjects born in the United States...

Prevalence of Infection with Hepatitis B and C Viruses and Co-infection with HIV in Three Jails: A Case for Viral Hepatitis Prevention in Jails in the United States

Hennessey, Karen A.; Kim, Andrea A.; Griffin, Vivian; Collins, Nicoline T.; Weinbaum, Cindy M.; Sabin, Keith
Fonte: Springer US Publicador: Springer US
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.81%
Hepatitis B vaccination and targeted testing for hepatitis C virus (HCV) are recommended for jails with medical services available. This study estimates hepatitis B virus (HBV) and HCV infection prevalence among jail inmates, since most previous studies have been conducted among prison inmates. Prison and jail populations differ: jails hold a wide spectrum of persons for an average of 10–20 days, including persons awaiting arraignment, trial, conviction, or sentencing, while prisons typically hold convicted criminals for at least 1 year. A stratified random sample of sera obtained during routine syphilis testing of inmates entering jails in Chicago (March–April 2000), Detroit (March–August 1999), and San Francisco (June 1999–December 2000) was tested for serologic markers of HBV and HCV infection. All sera had been previously tested for antibody to HIV (anti-HIV). A total of 1,292 serum samples (12% of new inmates) was tested. Antibody to HCV (anti-HCV) prevalence was 13%. Antibody to hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc) prevalence was 19%, and hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) prevalence was 0.9%; 12% had serologic evidence of hepatitis B vaccination. Hispanics had high rates of chronic HBV infection (3.6% HBsAg positive) along with Asians (4.7% HBsAg positive). Among HIV-infected persons...

Illuminated curved 25-gauge vitrectomy probe for removal of subsclerotomy vitreous in vitreoretinal surgery

Chalam, Kakarla V; Shah, Gaurav Y; Agarwal, Swati; Gupta, Shailesh K
Fonte: Medknow Publications Publicador: Medknow Publications
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2008 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.81%
Incarceration of vitreous in sclerotomy sites during pars plana vitrectomy can lead to wound-related complications similar to vitreous incarceration in cataract surgery. We describe an illuminated curved 25-gauge vitrectomy probe for removing vitreous from sclerotomy sites. Polyester tubing is used to secure a fiber optic endoilluminator (0.5 mm) with the curved 25-gauge vitrector (0.5 mm). The resultant illuminated curved vitrector (20 G) has a diameter of 1.0 mm. It facilitates complete removal of vitreous around the internal sclerotomies under direct visualization in both phakic and pseudophakic eyes. The same was confirmed with ultrasound biomicroscopy of the sclerotomy sites. Curved vitrector reduces postoperative complications related to incarcerated vitreous in phakic and pseudophakic eyes and other sclerotomy-related wound complications.

Development of a Multisystemic Parent Management Training Intervention for Incarcerated Parents, Their Children and Families

Eddy, J. Mark; Martinez, Charles R.; Schiffmann, Tracy; Newton, Rex; Olin, Laura; Leve, Leslie; Foney, Dana M.; Shortt, Joann Wu
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/11/2008 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.81%
The majority of men and women prison inmates are parents. Many lived with children prior to incarceration, and most have at least some contact with their children and families while serving their sentences. As prison populations have increased in the United States, there has been a renewed interest in finding ways not only to reduce recidivism, but also to prevent incarceration in the first place, particularly amongst the children of incarcerated parents. Positive family interaction is related to both issues. The ongoing development of a multisystemic intervention designed to increase positive family interaction for parents and families involved in the criminal justice system is described. The intervention package currently includes a prison-based parent management training program called Parenting Inside Out (PIO); a prison-based therapeutic visitation program; and complimentary versions of PIO designed for jail and probation and parole settings. Work on other components designed for justice-involved parents, children and for caregivers during reunification from prison is ongoing. Program development has occurred within the context of strong support from the state department of corrections and other key governmental and non-profit sector groups...

Filling the Gap: The Importance of Medicaid Continuity for Former Inmates

Wakeman, Sarah E.; McKinney, Margaret E.; Rich, Josiah D.
Fonte: Springer-Verlag Publicador: Springer-Verlag
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.81%
Despite no federal law mandating Medicaid termination for prisoners, 90 percent of states have implemented policies that withdraw inmates’ enrollment upon incarceration. This leaves a medically and psychiatrically vulnerable population uninsured during the months following release, a time period during which former inmates have been shown to have an increased risk of medical problems and death. We believe it is of critical importance for the 10 million Americans who cycle in and out of corrections each year, as well as the communities they return to, that Medicaid be suspended rather than terminated during incarceration.

Bridging Sexual Boundaries: Men Who Have Sex with Men and Women in a Street-Based Sample in Los Angeles

Gorbach, Pamina M.; Murphy, Ryan; Weiss, Robert E.; Hucks-Ortiz, Christopher; Shoptaw, Steven
Fonte: Springer US Publicador: Springer US
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.81%
The purpose of the study was to determine the potential contribution of bisexual men to the spread of HIV in Los Angeles. We compare the characteristics and behaviors of men who have sex with men and women (MSMW) to men who have sex with only women (MSW) and men who have sex with only men (MSM) in Los Angeles. Men (N = 1,125) who participated in one of the two waves of data collection from 2005 to 2007 at the Los Angeles site for NIDA’s Sexual Acquisition and Transmission of HIV—Cooperative Agreement Program were recruited using Respondent Driven Sampling. Participants completed Audio Computer Assisted Self Interviews and received oral HIV rapid testing with confirmatory blood test by Western Blot and provided urine specimens for detection of recent powder cocaine, crack cocaine, methamphetamine, or heroin use. MSM, MSW, or MSMW were defined by the gender of whom they reported sex with in the past 6 months. Chi-square tests and ANOVAs were used to test independence between these groups and demographic characteristics, substance use, and sexual behaviors. We fit generalized linear random intercept models to predict sexual risk behaviors at the partner level. Men were mostly of low income, unemployed, and minority, with many being homeless; 66% had been to jail or prison...

Co-Occurring Sexual Risk and Substance Use Behaviors Among Incarcerated Adolescents

Rosengard, Cynthia; Stein, L. A. R.; Barnett, Nancy P.; Monti, Peter M.; Golembeske, Charles; Lebeau-Craven, Rebecca
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/01/2006 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.81%
Incarcerated adolescents report greater sexual risk than do nonincarcerated peers. High-risk sexual behavior is associated with substance use. To determine how much sexual risk is combined with substance use, 167 incarcerated adolescents reported on their sexual risk behavior in the year before incarceration that involved alcohol or marijuana. For each risk behavior, marijuana use was more likely than was alcohol use. Marijuana use was more common for higher risk behaviors than for lower risk behaviors. Periods of incarceration provide opportunities for intervening on HIV-relevant risk behaviors among adolescents. The context of substance use within high-risk sexual situations ought to be a focus of interventions for incarcerated adolescents.

The Marijuana Ladder: Measuring motivation to change marijuana use in incarcerated adolescents

Slavet, James D.; Stein, L.A.R.; Colby, Suzanne M.; Barnett, Nancy P.; Monti, Peter M.; Golembeske, Charles; Lebeau-Craven, Rebecca
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.81%
The purpose of this study was to determine if a modified version of the Contemplation Ladder, a measure of motivation to change marijuana use among incarcerated adolescents (Marijuana Ladder; ML), was related to marijuana use and treatment engagement. Participants (N = 122) in this study were all incarcerated at a state juvenile correctional facility in the Northeast. Adolescents were assessed at the beginning of their incarceration, 2 months into their incarceration, and 3 months after their release. There was a significant negative relationship between ML scores and marijuana use and a significant positive relationship between ML scores and treatment engagement. When controlling for prior marijuana use and age, ML scores at baseline significantly added to the prediction of marijuana use and treatment engagement among incarcerated adolescents. Results support the concurrent validity and the predictive validity of the ML. This measure has the potential to provide important information for Juvenile Justice Facilities that might aid in treatment planning and discharge planning for incarcerated adolescents. In addition, researchers may find a quick visual analog measure of motivation to change marijuana use with good psychometric properties useful.

Prevalence and Correlates of Hepatitis C Infection among Male Injection Drug Users in Detention, Tehran, Iran

Kheirandish, Parastoo; SeyedAlinaghi, SeyedAhmad; Jahani, MohammadReza; Shirzad, Hadi; Seyed Ahmadian, MohammadReza; Majidi, Ali; Sharifi, AmirHoushang; Hosseini, Mostafa; Mohraz, Minoo; McFarland, Willi
Fonte: Springer US Publicador: Springer US
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.81%
For the benefit of planning for the future care and treatment of people infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) and to help guide prevention and control programs, data are needed on HCV seroprevalence and associated risk factors. We conducted a cross-sectional sero-behavioral survey of injection drug users (IDU) detained for mandatory rehabilitation during a police sweep of Tehran, Iran, in early 2006. During the study period, a consecutive sample comprising 454 of 499 (91.0%) men arrested and determined to be IDU by urine test and physical examination consented to a face-to-face interview and blood collection for HCV antibody testing. Overall, HCV prevalence was 80.0% (95% confidence interval (CI) 76.2–83.6). Factors independently associated with HCV infection included history of incarceration (adjusted OR 4.35, 95% CI 1.88–10.08), age of first injection ≤25 years (OR 2.72, 95% CI 1.09–6.82), and history of tattooing (OR 2.33, 95% CI 1.05–5.17). HCV prevalence in this population of IDU upon intake to jail was extremely high and possibly approaching saturation. Findings support that incarceration is contributing to the increased spread of HCV infection in Iran and calls for urgent increased availability of HCV treatment, long-term preparation for the care of complications of chronic infection...

Comparing the dynamic course of heroin, cocaine, and methamphetamine use over 10 years

Hser, Yih-Ing; Evans, Elizabeth; Huang, David; Brecht, Mary-Lynn; Li, Libo
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.81%
To examine dynamic changes in drug-use trajectories over time we analyzed episode types and predictors of quitting use over the 10 years following drug-use initiation for 1797 heroin, cocaine, and methamphetamine (meth) users. Most episodes reflected high use and incarceration, however these events occurred more frequently among heroin and meth users. Quitting was predicted by current treatment and self-help participation among meth (RR 2.57, 1.79–3.70; 2.57, 1.80–3.67) and cocaine (RR 2.00, 1.42–2.81; 2.10, 1.63–2.72) users, and by a history of quitting for meth users (RR 1.11, 1.06–1.17). Quitting was less likely among all users under legal supervision (RR 0.55–0.69) and among heroin (RR 0.66, 0.45–0.97) and meth users (RR 0.73, 0.60–0.89) with an early drug-use onset. Relative to cocaine or meth use, heroin use was characterized by persistent use at a high-level which was often only interrupted by incarceration. While quitting drug use can be facilitated by treatment and/or self-help participation, few people had these experiences in the 10 years following first use.