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Contaminação com sal de cloreto e cromatização da superfície do aço zincado no processo não-contínuo de zincagem por imersão a quente: influência no desempenho de tintas e determinação de pré-tratamentos para pintura adequados.; Chloride salt contamination and chromate quenching of galvanized steel on the batch galvanizing process: the influence on paint performance and the determination of suitable surface preparation for painting.

Ferrari, Jean Vicente
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 17/05/2006 PT
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O processo industrial não-contínuo de zincagem por imersão a quente (ZIQ) pode ocasionar a contaminação superficial do aço-carbono zincado por imersão a quente (AZIQ) com resíduos de cloreto. Estes resíduos, se não forem efetivamente eliminados, podem influenciar negativamente no desempenho dos esquemas de pintura dos sistemas dúplex (zincagem mais pintura). Sabe-se que no processo de ZIQ, a cromatização é amplamente utilizada, entretanto, o efeito que este pós-tratamento exerce no desempenho dos esquemas de pintura ainda não é bem estabelecido. Neste contexto, este trabalho teve como objetivos: I - verificar o grau de contaminação no AZIQ com sal de cloreto devido ao próprio processo de ZIQ; II - verificar os efeitos da contaminação com sal de cloreto e da cromatização do processo ZIQ no desempenho de tintas aplicadas sobre o AZIQ; e III – determinar pré-tratamentos para pintura adequados para o bom desempenho das tintas aplicadas sobre o AZIQ. A metodologia adotada para alcançar o objetivo I envolveu a zincagem de chapas de aço-carbono em diferentes prestadores de serviço de ZIQ, em diferentes condições. Estas chapas zincadas foram analisadas por microanálise química qualitativa por espectrometria de dispersão de energia (EDS) em microscópio eletrônico de varredura (MEV) e pela determinação dos teores de cloreto superficiais...

Efeito de tratamentos de modificação da superfície na resistência à corrsão do alumínio 1050; Effect of surface treatments on the corrosion resistance of the aluminum AA1050

Yoshikawa, Daniel Sierra
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 27/04/2011 PT
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Neste trabalho foi investigado o efeito de vários tratamentos para modificação da superfície na resistência à corrosão do alumínio AA1050 com o objetivo de identificar um potencial substituto ao tratamento de cromatização. Os tratamentos adotados consistiram inicialmente de polimento da superfície até acabamento 1 m, seguido por uma etapa comercial. Este tratamento foi utilizado como preparação preliminar da superfície, anterior aos demais tratamentos testados. Amostras com o tratamento preliminar foram submetidas a diferentes tratamentos de modificação da superfície, especificamente, imersão em solução com moléculas auto-organizáveis (SAM) à base de difosfonato, imersão em água fervente para acelerar o crescimento de óxido-hidróxido de alumínio; uma combinação destes dois últimos tratamentos e cromatização em solução à base de cromo hexavalente. O comportamento de corrosão do alumínio AA1050 submetido aos diferentes tipos de tratamentos foi investigado por ensaios eletroquímicos como: medidas de potencial a circuito aberto em função do tempo de imersão, espectroscopia de impedância eletroquímica e ensaios de polarização potenciodinâmica. Utilizou-se solução de 0,5 M de Na2SO4 como meio corrosivo...

Filmes finos à base de polissilanos como pré-tratamentos protetores contra corrosão de aço 'galvannealed'.; Thin films based on polisilane as protective pre-treatments against corrosion of galvannealed steel.

Capelossi, Vera Rosa
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 09/12/2011 PT
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Atualmente o aço galvannealed é submetido à fosfatização e/ou cromatização como pré-tratamento superficial; no entanto, por questões econômicas e ambientais, estuda-se a viabilidade de utilizar os silanos como pré-tratamento alternativo. Os silanos são moléculas organofuncionais conhecidas por atuar como agentes de ligação entre superfícies orgânicas e inorgânicas, promotores de adesão em sistemas de pintura e também por fornecerem proteção contra a corrosão. A proteção à corrosão depende principalmente do silano a ser utilizado, das condições de hidrólise e de cura. O objetivo deste trabalho é estudar as condições de hidrólise através de um projeto estatístico de experimentos e o efeito na proteção contra corrosão, de um agente promotor de polimerização redox (íons de cério IV) ou de um inibidor de corrosão (íons de cério III) aplicado aos filmes de silanos (bis-silano funcional: bis-1,2- [(trietoxisilil)propil] tetrasulfeto (BTESPT) e bis-(g-trimetoxysililpropil)amina (BTSPA)) obtidos em 1%, 2% ou 3% de concentração de silano em massa de solução solvente água/etanol (50/50%), nos pHs 4,0, 5,0, 6,5 e 9,0, depositados sobre o aço galvannealed. A natureza porosa natural da superfície desse aço...

Desenvolvimento de sistemas multifuncionais baseados em híbridos orgânico-inorgânicos dopados

Santos, Fábio Cesar dos
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP) Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP)
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: 69 f. : il.
POR
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Pós-graduação em Química - IQ; Environmentally compliant organic-inorganic hybrid coatings for efficient corrosion protection of metallic surfaces are alternatives to the current methods based on chromate passivation. In this context hybrids coatings were prepared using the sol-gel process from the radical polymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA) and 3-(Trimethoxysilyl)propyl methacrylate (MPTS) followed by the step of acidic hydrolysis and polycondensation of the silanes tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) and 3-(Trimethoxysilyl)propyl methacrylate (MPTS). To investigate the effectiveness of the hydrolysis/polycondensation process and the resulting structural properties, coatings were prepared with different ethanol to water proportions (0 < Ethanol/H2O < 1) for constant organic to inorganic phase ratio (MMA/TEOS = 4). The structural properties of ~2 μm thick films, deposited onto carbon steel substrates by dip-coating, were correlated with their anti corrosion efficiency. Nuclear magnetic resonance, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, thermogravimetry and nanoscratch test were used to study the structural properties and adhesion on steel. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and potentiodynamic polarization curves were carried out to evaluate the corrosion resistance of the coated samples after long-term exposure in standard saline (3...

Avaliação de inibidores voláteis de corrosão por técnicas eletroquímicas sobre o aço

Valente Junior, Marco Antonio Gomes
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP) Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP)
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: 102 f. : il.
POR
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Pós-graduação em Química - IQ; In this work, the efficiency of volatile corrosion inhibitors (VCI), applied to the protection against corrosion of CFF steel, was studied. In order to evaluate the inhibitors, it was determined the polarization resistances and some kinetic parameters by using the following electrochemical techniques: cyclic polarization curves, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and linear polarization. In addition, it was investigated the influence of cathodic overpotential on the polarization curves and the effect of pH close to the electrode surface on the kinetic parameters. The latter was conducted by means of simultaneous measurements of the pH values employing a W/WOx electrode. The evaluated inhibitors were: ethanolamine (ETA), cyclohexylamine (CHA), dicyclohexylamine (DCHA), caprylic acid (H-CAP), sodium caprylate (Na-CAP), ethanolamine caprylate (ETA-CAP), cyclohexylamine caprylate (CHA-CAP), dicyclohexylamine caprylate (DCHA-CAP). These inhibitors were dissolved and studied in the following solutions: a) 0.1 mol L-1 NaCl and b) borate buffer (BB) + 0.1 NaCl mol L-1. The obtained results showed that the parameters of Tafel curves depend on the cathodic overpotential applied in the beginning of the polarization curves. These parameters alter the pH on the electrode surface due to the oxygen reduction and water reactions which produce hydroxyls ions besides removing the oxides film. It was noticed that these effects are minimized when a buffer solution is employed. The inhibitors efficiency does not show a significant variation with respect to the different used electrochemical techniques. However...

Estudo eletroquímico e computacional de inibidores voláteis de corrosão adsorvidos sobre zinco

Teixeira, Deiver Alessandro
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP) Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP)
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 199 f. : il. -
POR
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Pós-graduação em Química - IQ; O presente estudo avaliou inibidores voláteis de corrosão (VCI) do grupo amino, mais especificamente a etanolamina, ciclohexilamina, diciclohexilamina e s eus respectivos sais benzoatos e caprilatos, para a prevenção de processos corrosiv os na superfície metálica do zinco. Para tanto foram utilizados métodos computa cionais em modelagem molecular, experimentais por medida de potencial em circuito aberto, espectroscopia de impedância eletroquímica, testes em câmara úmida segundo no rmas internacionais e microscopia eletrônica de varredura. Por modelagem molecular, o s VCIs foram avaliados quanto à estrutura molecular e interação com as superfí cies dos metais em nível quântico e pela metodologia ONIOM (QM/MM). Em ensaios eletroquímicos, a eficiência de inibição dos VCI foi avaliada pela medida do potencial em cir cuito aberto e pela resistência a polarização em concentrações variadas de VCI, o que pe rmitiu também a obtenção das isotermas de adsorção. As comparações entre cálculos teórico s e medidas experimentais permitiram indicar o VCI mais promissor e entender, pelo m enos em parte, seu mecanismo de reação.; This study evaluated volatile corrosion inhibitors (VCI) of the amino group...

Estudo de novos eletrolitos polimericos e aplicação em celulas solares de TiO2/corante; Study of new polymer electrolytes and application in TiO2/dye solar cells

Flavio Santos Freitas
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 16/07/2009 PT
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Neste trabalho foram investigados eletrólitos poliméricos baseados em poli(óxido de etileno-co-2-(2-metoxietoxi) etilglicidiléter) - P(EO-EM) com adição do oligômero dibenzoato de etileno-glicol (DIB)/LiI/I2 e poli(óxido de etileno-co-óxido de propileno) - P(EO-PO), com adição do líquido iônico iodeto de 1-metil-3- propilimidazólio (MPII)/I2 (com e sem a presença de LiI), visando a aplicação em células solares de TiO2/corante. Os eletrólitos foram caracterizados por Calorimetria Exploratória Diferencial (DSC), Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier (FTIR), Ressonância Magnética Nuclear de Hidrogênio (H RMN) e Espectroscopia de Impedância Eletroquímica (EIE). Para o sistema P(EO-EM)/DIB, os estudos realizados por DSC e FTIR mostraram alta homogeneidade entre os componentes, com evidências de coordenação de sal no copolímero e no oligômero. Nas medidas de condutividade iônica, verificou-se saturação em ~10 S cm a partir de 10 % de LiI para todas as proporções de PEO-EM/DIB. Como conseqüência, a aplicação de eletrólitos com 20 % de LiI apresentou resultados bem similares, independente da proporção de DIB no sistema, indicando que os processos cinéticos relacionados ao transporte de carga são diferentes dos eletrólitos géis reportados na literatura...

Corrosion behaviour of Ti/Al2O3 interfaces produced by an active metal brazing methodology

Ariza, E.; Rocha, L. A.; Paiva, O. C.
Fonte: Universidade do Minho Publicador: Universidade do Minho
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Publicado em /09/2004 ENG
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Metal/ceramic joints are used in a broad range of applications in biomedicine, such as the encapsulation of implantable telemetric devices, the fabrication of crowns and bridges for dental restoration, or the production of drug delivery systems, biomedical sensors and electrodes. Apart of other characteristics, the corrosion resistance of metal/ceramic interfaces is of prime importance when biomedical applications are considered. Most of metal/ceramic joints are produced by the active metal brazing technique or by diffusion bonding. Both techniques originates a multi-layered interface which should be able of accommodating the abrupt electronic, crystallographic, chemical, mechanical and thermomechanical discontinuity that characterize these metal/ceramic systems. However, galvanic interactions between those chemically distinct layers are likely to occur, affecting the degradation behaviour of the interface. In this work the corrosion behaviour of Ti-Al2O3 interfaces produced by an active metal brazing methodology was studied. SEM analyses evidenced an interface mainly constituted by four different layers. A first layer rich on titanium and copper, located near to the pure titanium, another layer also rich on Ti and Cu, but with a higher Ag content...

Organic-inorganic hybrid coatings for corrosion protection of galvanized steel and electroplated znfe steel

Souza, M. E. P.; Ariza, E.; Ballester, M.; Yoshida, I. V. P.; Rocha, L. A.; Freire, C. M. A.
Fonte: Universidade do Minho Publicador: Universidade do Minho
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Publicado em //2004 ENG
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The development of hybrids materials by the sol-gel process has been extensively investigated in recent years. The combination a wide variety of compositions and production processes had permit the use of these aterials in different applications like coatings for corrosion protection of metals and abrasion resistant coatings. In this work organic-inorganic hybrid materials have been prepared from the hydrolysis of tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) and silanol-terminated polidymetilmetoxysilane (PDMS) using a sol-gel process. The composition evaluated was 50% TEOS- 50% PDMS. These materials have been applied on galvanized steel and on steel electroplated with a ZnFe alloy. In order to evaluate the degradation behaviour of these coatings, electrochemical techniques were used. They consisting in the monitoring of the open-circuit potential (Ecorr), and in the realization of potentiodynamic polarization measurements of the samples, which was performed in a 3% NaCl aqueous solution. Additionally, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was used as a complementary technique for the evaluation of the corrosion mechanisms of the coating system. The surface of the samples, before and after the electrochemical tests, have been inspected by SEM and EDS. EIS data was fitted to an equivalent circuit from which the lectrochemical parameters were obtained. Results show a good protective character of the hybrid films...

Influence of the structural, physical and chemical characteristics of titanium surface oxide layers on its tribocorrosion behaviour in contact with an artificial saliva solution

Ribeiro, Ana; Maribondo, Rubens; Martinelli, A. E.; Celis, J. P.; Gomes, J. R.; Rocha, L. A.
Fonte: Universidade do Minho Publicador: Universidade do Minho
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Publicado em /10/2005 ENG
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Titanium has been widely used for dental implant applications because their attractive properties such as low Young modulus, good fatigue strength, excellent corrosion resistance and biocompatibility. However it cannot meet all clinical requirements. 1-2 When inserted in the oral environment, dental implants are submitted to a complex degradation phenomena occurring due to the interaction of tribological and corrosive phenomena which can result on its failure. In fact, most of the failures are a result of the combined action of mechanical solicitations (sliding or abrasive wear, erosion, impact, fretting or fatigue processes) and chemical solicitations as a consequence of contact with saliva, cells or bacteria. Consequently, dental implants become part of a tribocorrosion system, and the investigation of the tribocorrosion mechanisms in such systems becomes essential. 3 Recent work has shown that wear resistance of titanium might be improved selectively using the appropriate surface treatment, such as plasma oxidation, which is also often used to enhance the osseointegration process. 4-5 The main aim of this paper is to study the influence of the characteristics of the oxide layers obtained by plasma oxidation on the tribocorrosion behaviour of c.p. Ti intended for the fabrication of dental implants.The plasma oxidation treatment were performed at three different temperatures (300...

Effect of oral biofilms on the biotribocorrosion of titanium

Souza, J. C. M.; Ariza, E.; Henriques, Mariana; Oliveira, Rosário; Teughels, W.; Rocha, L. A.; Celis, J. P.
Fonte: Universidade do Minho Publicador: Universidade do Minho
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Publicado em 08/09/2009 ENG
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The oral cavity is a complex environment where corrosive substances from dietary, human saliva and oral biofilms may accumulate in retentive areas of implant-supported prostheses promoting a corrosion of their surfaces. On the other side, during mastication, micro-movements may occur in artificial joints causing a relative contact motion between surfaces. Both processes result in a tribocorrosion system. The objective of this work is to investigate the in-vitro tribocorrosion behavior of titanium covered by biofilms and immersed in artificial saliva. Reciprocating sliding wear tests coupled with electrochemical techniques were performed at 25 o C on titanium samples covered or not with biofilms. Mixed biofilms of Candida albicans and Streptococcus mutans were grown at 37 oC on titanium surfaces for 9 days in Tryptic Soy Broth medium, containing mucin, yeast extract, peptone and sucrose. The open-circuit potential (OCP) was measured until stabilization in artificial saliva. After that, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements were carried out at open circuit potential. Subsequently, sliding tests were performed at normal loads of 0.1, 0.2 and 3 N, at a sliding frequency of 1 Hz, and linear displacement amplitudes of 0.5 and 2 mm using a tribometer equipped with a test viewer software. During the sliding tests...

Corrosion behaviour of Al/Al3Ti and Al/Al3Zr functionally graded materials produced by centrifugal solid-particle method: Influence of the intermetallics volume fraction

Ferreira, S. C.; Rocha, L. A.; Ariza, E.; Sequeira, P. D.; Watanabe, Yoshimi; Fernandes, J. C. S.
Fonte: Universidade do Minho Publicador: Universidade do Minho
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Publicado em //2011 ENG
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Intermetallic particles, Al3Ti and Al3Zr were formed in Al–5mass%Ti and Al–5mass%Zr alloys, respectively, by centrifugal casting, in order to create functionally graded materials (FGMs). At present, no information is available on the influence of the amount of intermetallics on the electrochemical properties of these alloys. In this paper, the corrosion resistance of Al/Al3Ti and Al/Al3Zr FGMs was investigated by open-circuit measurements, potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Results suggests that the corrosion resistance of the FGMs is affected by galvanic effects between the intermetallic particles and the metallic matrix. Lower centrifugal forces resulted in an improvement of the electrochemical properties.

Hybrid films with (trimethoxysilylpropyl) methacrylate (TMSM), poly (methyl methacrylate) PMMA and tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) applied on tinplate

Kunst,Sandra Raquel; Ludwig,Gustavo Aalberto; Cardoso,Henrique Ribeiro Piaggio; Santana,Joseane Andrade; Sarmento,Victor Hugo Vitorino; Malfatti,Célia de Fraga
Fonte: ABM, ABC, ABPol Publicador: ABM, ABC, ABPol
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/08/2014 EN
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The tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) influences morphological and electrochemical properties of hybrid films by function of concentration. Moreover, the use of acetic acid as a catalyst in the sol enables a more complete hydrolysis of the silane precursors due to the fact that the acetic acid goes through a more complete ionization when in aqueous solution. The aim of this paper is to study the effect of the concentration of tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) on the protective properties of the film on tinplate substrate. The tinplate was coated with a hybrid film obtained from a sol-gel method constituted of the following alkoxide precursors: 3 - (trimetoxisililpropil) methacrylate (TMSM) and poly(methyl methacrylate) PMMA. The effect of tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) concentration has also been evaluated. The films hydrolysis was performed at a pH value of 3. 0 using acetic acid as a catalyst. The films were obtained by dip-coating process, cured for 3 hours at 160 ºC. The film morphology was evaluated by SEM and profilometry. The electrochemical behavior of the films was evaluated by open circuit potential monitoring, potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The film hydrophobicity was determined by contact angle measurements. The studied films have shown good performance as to corrosion resistance on tinplate. The hybrid film which was obtained through the addition of an excessive amount of TEOS (T3A3) showed increased thickness. Nevertheless...

Characterization of Siloxane-poly(methyl methacrylate) Hybrid Films Obtained on a Tinplate Substrate Modified by the Addition of Organic and Inorganic Acids

Kunst,Sandra Raquel; Beltrami,Lilian Vanessa Rossa; Cardoso,Henrique Ribeiro Piaggio; Santana,Josiane Andrade; Sarmento,Victor Hugo Vitorino; Müller,Iduvirges Lourdes; Malfatti,Célia de Fraga
Fonte: ABM, ABC, ABPol Publicador: ABM, ABC, ABPol
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/02/2015 EN
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Tinplate is used to food packaging and other types of packages. The corrosion resistance of the tinplate has been study due the necessity of an alternative to high environmental impact of chromatization process. Therefore protective coatings as hybrid films base elaborations with different acids are studied to improve the barrier effect against corrosion. The objective of this work is characterize hybrid films deposited on a tinplate from a sol made up of the alkoxide precursors 3-(trimethoxysilylpropyl)methacrylate (TMSM), tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) together with one of three acids (acetic, hydrochloric or nitric acid) and to verify their action against the corrosion of the substrate. The films were obtained by a dip-coating process and cured for 3 hours at 160 °C. The film hydrophobicity was determined by contact angle measurements, and the morphology was evaluated by SEM. FTIR measurements were performed to characterize the chemical structures of the films. The electrochemical behavior of the coatings was evaluated by techniques open circuit potential monitoring (OCP), potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The results demonstrate that the siloxane-PMMA films improve the protective properties of the tinplate...

Impedance Analysis of Lipid Domains in Phosphatidylcholine Bilayer Membranes Containing Ergosterol

Naumowicz, Monika; Figaszewski, Zbigniew A.
Fonte: Biophysical Society Publicador: Biophysical Society
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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The effect of ergosterol on the electrochemical features of the phosphatidylcholine bilayer membrane was investigated by impedance spectroscopy. The experimental impedance values obtained in the presence of different amounts of ergosterol showed evidence of domain structures within the bilayer containing <0.06 molar fraction of ergosterol. Based on derived mathematical equations, the surface area of phospholipid/ergosterol domain was calculated; it amounts to 262 Å2. This value is consistent, taking into consideration the presented measurements as well as ordering and condensation effects of ergosterol, with a stoichiometry of such a domain equal to 3:1. The result of the investigation is the proposal of a new and simple method for the determination of the surface area and description stoichiometry of domains formed in any two-component system.

Structure and Properties of Tethered Bilayer Lipid Membranes with Unsaturated Anchor Molecules

Budvytyte, Rima; Valincius, Gintaras; Niaura, Gediminas; Voiciuk, Vladislava; Mickevicius, Mindaugas; Stauffer, Hilary; Goh, Haw-Zan; Shekhar, Prabhanshu; Heinrich, Frank; Shenoy, Siddharth; Lösche, Mathias; Vanderah, David J.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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The self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of the new lipidic anchor molecule HC18 [Z 20-(Z-octadec-9-enyloxy)-3,6,9,12,15,18,22-heptaoxatetracont-31-ene-1-thiol], and mixed HC18/β-mercaptoethanol (βME) SAMs were studied by spectroscopic ellipsometry, contact angle measurements, reflection adsorption infrared spectroscopy (RAIRS), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and evaluated in tethered bilayer lipid membranes (tBLMs). Our data indicate that HC18, containing a double bond in the alkyl segments, forms highly disordered SAMs up to anchor/βME molar fraction ratios of 80/20 and result in tBLMs that exhibit higher lipid diffusion coefficients, relative to previous anchor compounds with saturated alkyl chains, as determined by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy. EIS data shows the HC18 tBLMs, completed by rapid solvent exchange (RSE) or vesicle fusion, form more easily than with saturated lipidic anchors, exhibit excellent electrical insulating properties indicating low defect densities, and readily incorporate the pore forming toxin, α-hemolysin. Neutron reflectivity measurements on HC18 tBLMs confirm the formation of complete tBLMs, even at low tether compositions and high ionic lipid compositions. Our data indicates HC18 results in tBLMs with improved physical properties for incorporation of integral membrane proteins (IMPs) and that 80% HC18 tBLMs appear to be optimal for practical applications such as biosensors where high electrical insulation and IMP/peptide reconstitution is imperative.

NMR and Electrochemical Investigation of the Transport Properties of Methanol and Water in Nafion and Clay-Nanocomposites Membranes for DMFCs

Nicotera, Isabella; Angjeli, Kristina; Coppola, Luigi; Aricò, Antonino S.; Baglio, Vincenzo
Fonte: MDPI Publicador: MDPI
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 20/06/2012 EN
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Water and methanol transport behavior, solvents adsorption and electrochemical properties of filler-free Nafion and nanocomposites based on two smectite clays, were investigated using impedance spectroscopy, DMFC tests and NMR methods, including spin-lattice relaxation and pulsed-gradient spin-echo (PGSE) diffusion under variable temperature conditions. Synthetic (Laponite) and natural (Swy-2) smectite clays, with different structural and physical parameters, were incorporated into the Nafion for the creation of exfoliated nanocomposites. Transport mechanism of water and methanol appears to be influenced from the dimensions of the dispersed platelike silicate layers as well as from their cation exchange capacity (CEC). The details of the NMR results and the effect of the methanol solution concentration are discussed. Clays particles, and in particular Swy-2, demonstrate to be a potential physical barrier for methanol cross-over, reducing the methanol diffusion with an evident blocking effect yet nevertheless ensuring a high water mobility up to 130 °C and for several hours, proving the exceptional water retention property of these materials and their possible use in the DMFCs applications. Electrochemical behavior is investigated by cell resistance and polarization measurements. From these analyses it is derived that the addition of clay materials to recast Nafion decreases the ohmic losses at high temperatures extending in this way the operating range of a direct methanol fuel cell.

KOROZE SLITIN ZIRKONIA V PROSTØEDÍ VVER [Corrosion of Zr-alloys in WWER environment]

RENČIUKOVÁ Veronika; MACAK Jan; SAJDL Petr; NOVOTNY Radek; VRTILKOVA Vera
Fonte: Vysoka Skola Chemicko-technologicka v Praze Publicador: Vysoka Skola Chemicko-technologicka v Praze
Tipo: Contributions to Conferences Formato: Printed
CZE
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The corrosion rate of zirconium alloys in VVER water is typically determined from non in-situ techniques (weight gain) that are not able to measure the instantaneous corrosion rate. This problem could be solved by using a combination of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and polarization measurement. We evaluated this combined approach for the in-situ determination of the corrosion rate of E110 and Zry-4 in VVER water (boric acid, potassium hydroxide, lithium hydroxide) at temperatures up to 340 °C. Impedance data were obtained over a wide range of frequencies and then approximated using the Rs(QoxRox)(QdlRp) model of equivalent circuit. The polarization resistance Rp and Tafel parameters obtained from polarization measurements were used to gain an instantaneous corrosion rate. The Tafel parameter for a cathodic reaction was 160 mV/dec, thus obtained the instantaneous corrosion rate was then converted into the cumulative corrosion rate applying a combination of Faraday’s law and Stern–Geary equation. The resulting cumulative corrosion rate was then correlated with cumulative corrosion rate obtained from weight gain measurements. Evaluated corrosion rates were consistent.; JRC.F.4-Nuclear Reactor Integrity Assessment and Knowledge Management

Towards stable bifunctional oxygen electrodes and corrosion resistant gas diffusion layers for regenerative fuel cells

Silva, R. A.; Soares, C. O.; Carvalho, M. D.; Jorge, M. E. Melo; Gomes, A.; Pereira, M. I. da Silva; Rangel, C. M.
Fonte: Laboratório Nacional de Energia e Geologia Publicador: Laboratório Nacional de Energia e Geologia
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Publicado em //2013 ENG
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ABSTRACT: Regenerative fuel cells (RFCs) can provide very high energy storage at minimal weight in a dual mode system, by combining an electrolyzer and a fuel cell. Although RFCs are an appealing technology their development is still at an early stage. One key issue is the search for highly active electrocatalysts for both oxygen reduction and water oxidation. Presently, platinum is the best electrocatalyst for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), but has a poor oxygen evolution (OER) performance while metal oxides catalyze the OER but not the ORR. Yet, the search for the development of bi-functional oxygen electrodes is also associated to structurally stable gas diffusion layers - they must be capable of withstanding high potentials when cells are operated in the electrolyzer mode and in addition, mass transport limitations when used as a cathode in fuel cell mode. A novel approach is used in this work to tackle the issue, focussing on the development of stable gas diffusion electrodes for the oxygen reactions, having as a base high surface area LaNiO3. Previous work by the authors has optimised the synthesis of the mentioned perovskite-type oxide, prepared by a self-combustion method. The high electrochemical surface area and low porosity of the oxide has been indicated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and BET measurements. A full characterization has been the subject of recent publications [1...

Phenolic and non-Phenolic Fractions of the Olive Oil Mill Wastewaters as Corrosion Inhibitor for Steel in HCl medium

Khadiri,A; Ousslim,A; Bekkouche,K; Aouniti,A; Elidrissi,A; Hammouti,B
Fonte: Sociedade Portuguesa de Electroquímica Publicador: Sociedade Portuguesa de Electroquímica
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2014 EN
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The inhibition of the corrosion of Mild Steel (MS) in 1 M HCl solution by a new synthesised organic compound, namely 1,1'-(2,2'-(2,2'-oxybis(ethane-2,1-diyl)bis (sulfanediyl))bis(ethane-2,1-diyl))diazepan-2-one, has been studied by weight loss measurements, electrochemical polarisation and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The experimental results have showed that this organic compound revealed a good corrosion inhibition and the inhibition efficiency is increased with the inhibitor concentration to reach 97% at 1 mM. Potentiodynamic polarisation suggested that it is a mixed type of inhibitor. EIS measurements show an increase of the polarisation resistance with the inhibitor concentration and the electrical equivalent circuit is determined. The inhibitor adsorption process on (MS) surfaces obeys the Langmuir adsorption isotherm and the adsorption isotherm parameters (Kads, ΔGads, ΔHads and ΔSads) were determined. The temperature effect on the corrosion behaviour of (MS) in 1 M HCl without and with inhibitor at different concentration was studied in the temperature range from 308 to 353 K and the kinetic parameters activation such as Ea, ΔHa and ΔSa were evaluated.