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Opioid actions on single nucleus raphe magnus neurons from rat and guinea-pig in vitro.

Pan, Z Z; Williams, J T; Osborne, P B
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /08/1990 EN
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1. Intracellular recordings were made from neurons of the nucleus raphe magnus (NRM) from rat (n = 128) and guinea-pig (n = 115). Two types of cells were found in each, primary (103 in rat, 27 in guinea-pig) and secondary cells (25 in rat, 88 in guinea-pig). 2. Primary cells had input resistances of 186 +/- 9 M omega (n = 9) in rat and 255 +/- 50 M omega (n = 11) in guinea-pig. The action potential in each was about 1.5 ms in duration. Synaptic potentials were evoked by focal electrical stimulation and consisted of both gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and excitatory amino acid components. 3. Morphine, [Met5]enkephalin (ME) and [D-Ala2,N-Me-Phe4, Gly5-ol]enkephalin (DAMGO) depressed the amplitude of the GABA-mediated synaptic potential by a maximum of 50-65% and had little effect on the excitatory amino acid-mediated synaptic potential. There was no effect of these opioids on the resting membrane potential or input resistance of primary cells in rat or guinea-pig. 4. Secondary cells had short duration action potentials (less than 1 ms) and an input resistance of 354 +/- 47 M omega in rat (n = 6) and 290 +/- 40 M omega in guinea-pig (n = 15). The synaptic potential observed in the cells of this group was mediated by activation of only excitatory amino acid receptors. 5. ME hyperpolarized and/or abolished the spontaneous firing in sixteen out of twenty-four neurons in the secondary group from rat and eight out of eighty-four neurons from guinea-pig. ME induced an outward current at -60 mV that reversed polarity at potentials more negative than -92 +/- 3 mV in rat (n = 6) and -98 +/- 2 mV in guinea-pig (n = 18). The reversal potential of the opioid current was shifted to less negative potentials when the external potassium concentration was increased...

Sympathetic innervation and excitability of arterioles originating from the rat middle cerebral artery.

Hill, C E; Hirst, G D; Silverberg, G D; van Helden, D F
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /02/1986 EN
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The densities of the adrenergic innervation of the internal carotid and middle cerebral arteries and their extracerebral branches have been determined using fluorescence histochemistry. The density of the nerve plexus on the internal carotid artery was greater than that of the middle cerebral artery. The density of the plexus on the middle cerebral artery decreased with increasing distance from its origin. The density and the peripheral extent of the nerve fibre plexus on the arterioles arising from the carotid artery were greater than those arising from the middle cerebral artery. On any arteriole the density of innervation decreased with increasing distance from its origin. The passive electrical properties of proximal and distal middle cerebral arteriolar segments were compared. Both proximal and distal arteriolar segments had similar resistances and time constants in the order of 100 M omega and 250 ms respectively. Small regenerative responses could be elicited in all proximal middle cerebral arteriolar segments but only in a proportion of corresponding distal segments. The addition of external tetraethylammonium ions (TEA) provided much larger regenerative responses. Action potentials in proximal middle cerebral arteriolar segments had larger peak amplitudes and faster rise times than those of corresponding distal segments. Distal carotid arteriolar segments had similar voltage-dependent excitability as proximal segments of middle cerebral arterioles but generated less inward current for a given voltage step. There was a direct correlation between the density of innervation and the voltage-dependent excitability of arteriolar smooth muscle cells. The possibility that the presence of nerves is correlated with the density of calcium channels is discussed.

Electric current flow in a two-cell preparation from Chironomus salivary glands.

Metzger, P; Weingart, R
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /01/1984 EN
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Conventional micro-electrode techniques were used to study the passive electrical properties of salivary glands from Chironomus nuditarsis insect larvae of the fourth instar stage. Linear cable analysis performed on intact glands revealed the following constants: axial intracellular resistance, Ri = 2730 omega cm; membrane resistance per unit apparent cylindrical area, Rm = 1350 omega cm2; membrane capacitance per unit apparent cylindrical area, Cm = 17.6 microF cm-2. The multicellular glands were reduced to intact two-cell preparations by destroying neighbouring cells mechanically. Each cell of a coupled cell pair was impaled with two micro-electrodes, one to pass rectangular current pulses and the other to monitor the resulting voltage deflexions. Internal consistency tests revealed that the experimental data under steady-state conditions may be described accurately by an equivalent circuit consisting of a delta configuration of three resistive elements: the resistances of the non-junctional membrane of cell 1 and cell 2 (r1 and r2), and the resistance of the gap junctional membrane connecting the two cells (rg). The current-voltage relation of the non-junctional membrane was found ohmic over a membrane potential ranging from -40 mV to + 10 mV. The mean value of Rm was 2020 omega cm2. The resistance function of the gap junctional membrane was also ohmic. There was no dependence of gap junctional resistance on voltage or direction of current flow...

Voltage clamp and internal perfusion of single rat heart muscle cells.

Brown, A M; Lee, K S; Powell, T
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /09/1981 EN
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1. Single cells from adult rat ventricle were dispersed using an enzymic dissociation technique. Electrical properties were measured with either suction pipettes or conventional glass micropipettes and the results were compared. 2. Suction pipette and micropipette measurements of resting membrane potentials and action potentials were comparable. Values were similar to those reported previously for both dispersed cardiac myocytes and whole tissue preparations from adult rat ventricle. 3. Voltage clamp with a single suction pipette was used in initial experiments, but the results were not sufficiently accurate. Consequently, voltage clamp of single cells was carried out using two suction pipettes (tip diameters 10-15 micrometers), one for passing current and the other for recording membrane potential. Dialysis of cell contents was performed by each suction pipette. A roving micropipette (tip diameter less than 1 micrometer) was used occasionally to measure membrane potential at selected sites. 4. Using the two-suction-pipette method, voltage-clamp steps rose with time constants of less than 10 microsec and the capacitative current transient decayed with a single time constant of less than 100 microsec. These values are more optimal than those observed in other voltage-clamped cardiac muscle preparations. 5. Single cardiac myocytes had membrane input resistances of 44.5 +/- 4.6 M omega...

PGE(2) activation of apical membrane Cl(-) channels in A6 epithelia: impedance analysis.

Păunescu, T G; Helman, S I
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /08/2001 EN
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Measurements of transepithelial electrical impedance of continuously short-circuited A6 epithelia were made at audio frequencies (0.244 Hz to 10.45 kHz) to investigate the time course and extent to which prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) modulates Cl(-) transport and apical membrane capacitance in this cell-cultured model epithelium. Apical and basolateral membrane resistances were determined by nonlinear curve-fitting of the impedance vectors at relatively low frequencies (<50 Hz) to equations (Păunescu, T. G., and S. I. Helman. 2001. Biophys. J. 81:838--851) where depressed Nyquist impedance semicircles were characteristic of the membrane impedances under control Na(+)-transporting and amiloride-inhibited conditions. In all tissues (control, amiloride-blocked, and amiloride-blocked and furosemide-pretreated), PGE(2) caused relatively small (< approximately 3 microA/cm(2)) and rapid (<60 s) maximal increase of chloride current due to activation of a rather large increase of apical membrane conductance that preceded significant activation of Na(+) transport through amiloride-sensitive epithelial Na(+) channels (ENaCs). Apical membrane capacitance was frequency-dependent with a Cole-Cole dielectric dispersion whose relaxation frequency was near 150 Hz. Analysis of the time-dependent changes of the complex frequency-dependent equivalent capacitance of the cells at frequencies >1.5 kHz revealed that the mean 9.8% increase of capacitance caused by PGE(2) was not correlated in time with activation of chloride conductance...

Model of the outer membrane potential generation by the inner membrane of mitochondria.

Lemeshko, Victor V
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /02/2002 EN
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Voltage-dependent anion channels in the outer mitochondrial membrane are strongly regulated by electrical potential. In this work, one of the possible mechanisms of the outer membrane potential generation is proposed. We suggest that the inner membrane potential may be divided on two resistances in series, the resistance of the contact sites between the inner and outer membranes and the resistance of the voltage-dependent anion channels localized beyond the contacts in the outer membrane. The main principle of the proposed mechanism is illustrated by simplified electric and kinetic models. Computational behavior of the kinetic model shows a restriction of the steady-state metabolite flux through the mitochondrial membranes at relatively high concentration of the external ADP. The flux restriction was caused by a decrease of the voltage across the contact sites and by an increase in the outer membrane potential (up to +60 mV) leading to the closure of the voltage-dependent anion channels localized beyond the contact sites. This mechanism suggests that the outer membrane potential may arrest ATP release through the outer membrane beyond the contact sites, thus tightly coordinating mitochondrial metabolism and aerobic glycolysis in tumor and normal proliferating cells.

Photocurrents Generated by Bacteriorhodopsin Adsorbed on Nano-Black Lipid Membranes

Horn, Christian; Steinem, Claudia
Fonte: Biophysical Society Publicador: Biophysical Society
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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Purple membranes were adsorbed on freestanding lipid bilayers, termed nano-black lipid membranes (nano-BLMs), suspending the pores of porous alumina substrates with average pore diameters of 280 nm. Nano-BLMs were obtained by first coating the upper surface of the highly ordered porous alumina substrates with a thin gold layer followed by chemisorption of 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphothioethanol and subsequent addition of a droplet of 1,2-diphytanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine and octadecylamine dissolved in n-decane onto the hydrophobic submonolayer. By means of impedance spectroscopy, the quality of the nano-BLMs was verified. The electrical parameters confirm the formation of single lipid bilayers with high membrane resistances covering the porous matrix. Adsorption of purple membranes on the nano-BLMs was followed by recording the photocurrents generated by bacteriorhodopsin upon continuous light illumination. The membrane system exhibits a very high long-term stability with the advantage that not only transient but also stationary currents are recordable. By adding the proton ionophore carbonyl cyanide-m-chlorophenylhydrazone the conductivity of the nano-BLMs increases, resulting in a higher stationary current, which proves that proton conductance occurs across the nano-BLMs.

Compensation for resistance in series with excitable membranes.

Moore, J W; Hines, M; Harris, E M
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /10/1984 EN
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Extracellular resistance in series (Rs) with excitable membranes can give rise to significant voltage errors that distort the current records in voltage-clamped membranes. Electrical methods for measurement of and compensation for such resistances are described and evaluated. Measurement of Rs by the conventional voltage jump in response to a current step is accurate but the measurement of sine-wave admittance under voltage-clamp conditions is better, having about a fivefold improvement in resolution (+/- 0.1 omega cm2) over the conventional method. Conventional feedback of the membrane current signal to correct the Rs error signal leads to instability of the voltage clamp when approximately two-thirds of the error is corrected. We describe an active electronic bridge circuit that subtracts membrane capacitance from the total membrane current and allows full, yet stable, compensation for the voltage error due to ionic currents. Furthermore, this method provides not only fast and accurate control of the membrane potential in response to a command step, but also fast recovery following an abrupt change in the membrane conductance. Marked changes in the kinetics and amplitude of ionic currents resulting from full compensation for Rs are shown for several typical potential patterns.

Lack of involvement of bradykinin in the vascular sympathoinhibitory effects of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

Chauvin, B.; Richer, C.; Giudicelli, J. F.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /10/1995 EN
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1. The aim of this study was to investigate the contribution of endogenous bradykinin to the vascular sympathoinhibitory effects exerted by angiotensin I converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) in the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR). 2. Adult SHRs were treated daily for 8 days with either perindopril (3 mg kg-1), or a selective angiotensin II AT1 receptor antagonist, losartan (10 mg kg-1) both given orally--these two doses being equipotent in inhibiting angiotensin I (AI)-induced vascular responses--or distilled water (controls). After pithing, the animals were instrumented for determination of blood pressure, heart rate, cardiac output, regional (renal, mesenteric, hindlimb) blood flows (pulsed Doppler technique) and corresponding vascular resistances. Afterwards, half of the animals of each group were given the selective bradykinin B2 receptor antagonist, icatibant, used in a dose (10 micrograms kg-1, i.v.) that achieved B2 receptor blockade, the other half received saline (10 microliters kg-1, i.v.). Haemodynamic responses to increasing frequencies of spinal cord stimulation were then measured. 3. Pressor and vasoconstrictor responses to AI were significantly and similarly reduced in both perindopril- and losartan-treated groups. Perindopril and losartan both decreased to a similar extent the pressor and vasoconstrictor responses to electrical stimulation of the spinal cord. 4. In the dose used...

Patch-clamp studies of isolated mouse olfactory receptor neurons

Fonte: The Rockefeller University Press Publicador: The Rockefeller University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/07/1987 EN
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Olfactory receptor neurons isolated from embryonic, neonatal, and adult mice were studied using the patch-clamp technique. Several distinct types of ion channels were characterized in patches of membrane from the neuronal soma and the dendritic knob of receptor neurons, including a 130-pS Ca++-activated K+ channel with voltage-dependent kinetics, an 80-pS Ca++-activated K+ channel with voltage-insensitive kinetics, a 25- pS K+ channel with properties similar to inward rectifiers, and a 40-pS K+ channel that was activated and then inactivated by rapid depolarization. Evidence of large-conductance (greater than 200 pS) Cl- channels, which were Ca++ insensitive and increasingly active at depolarizing membrane potentials, and voltage-activated Ca++ channels (16 pS) was also obtained. From K+ channel activity recorded from cell- attached patches, the intracellular [Ca++] was inferred to be below 0.1 microM, and the membrane potential was inferred to be approximately -50 mV. The receptor neurons had high input resistances, and action potentials could be elicited by picoampere amounts of depolarizing current. The receptor neurons responded to applied odorant molecules and to forskolin with increases in membrane conductance. These results provide a description of the membrane properties of olfactory receptor neurons and a basis for understanding their electrical activity and response to odorants.

The origin of the skewed amplitude distribution of spontaneous excitatory junction potentials in poorly coupled smooth muscle cells

Young, J.S.; Brain, K.L.; Cunnane, T.C.
Fonte: Elsevier Science Publicador: Elsevier Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 02/03/2007 EN
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The skewed amplitude distribution of spontaneous excitatory junction potentials (sEJPs) in the mouse vas deferens and other electrically-coupled smooth muscle syncytia has been attributed to electrically-attenuated depolarizations resulting from the spontaneous release of quantized packets of ATP acting on remote smooth muscle cells (SMCs). However, in the present investigation surface SMCs of the mouse isolated vas deferens were poorly electrically coupled, with input resistances (176±18 MΩ, range: 141–221 MΩ, n=4) similar to those of dissociated cells. Furthermore, the amplitude of evoked EJPs was more variable in surface compared with deeper SMCs (F test, F=17.4, P<0.0001). Using simultaneous electrophysiology and confocal microscopy to investigate these poorly-coupled cells, it is shown that α-latrotoxin-stimulated sEJPs correlate, in timing (median delay ranged from −30 to −57 ms, P<0.05 in all experiments, n=5) and amplitude (Pearson product moment correlation, ρ>0.55 and P<0.001), with purinergic neuroeffector Ca2+ transients (NCTs) in SMCs. The temporal correlation between sEJPs of widely ranging amplitude with NCTs in the impaled SMC demonstrates that all sEJPs could arise from neurotransmitter action on the impaled cell and that the skewed distribution of sEJPs can be explained by the variable effect of packets of ATP on a single SMC. The amplitude correlation of sEJPs and NCTs argues against the attenuation of electrical signal amplitude along the length of a single SMC. The skewed sEJP amplitude distribution arising from neurotransmitter release on single SMCs is consistent with a broad neurotransmitter packet size distribution at sympathetic neuroeffector junctions.

Flexible Chip Scale Package and Interconnect for Implantable MEMS Movable Microelectrodes for the Brain

Jackson, Nathan; Muthuswamy, Jit
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/04/2009 EN
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We report here a novel approach called MEMS microflex interconnect (MMFI) technology for packaging a new generation of Bio-MEMS devices that involve movable microelectrodes implanted in brain tissue. MMFI addresses the need for (i) operating space for movable parts and (ii) flexible interconnects for mechanical isolation. We fabricated a thin polyimide substrate with embedded bond-pads, vias, and conducting traces for the interconnect with a backside dry etch, so that the flexible substrate can act as a thin-film cap for the MEMS package. A double gold stud bump rivet bonding mechanism was used to form electrical connections to the chip and also to provide a spacing of approximately 15–20 µm for the movable parts. The MMFI approach achieved a chip scale package (CSP) that is lightweight, biocompatible, having flexible interconnects, without an underfill. Reliability tests demonstrated minimal increases of 0.35 mΩ, 0.23 mΩ and 0.15 mΩ in mean contact resistances under high humidity, thermal cycling, and thermal shock conditions respectively. High temperature tests resulted in an increase in resistance of > 90 mΩ when aluminum bond pads were used, but an increase of ~ 4.2 mΩ with gold bond pads. The mean-time-to-failure (MTTF) was estimated to be at least one year under physiological conditions. We conclude that MMFI technology is a feasible and reliable approach for packaging and interconnecting Bio-MEMS devices.

Homeostasis of intrinsic excitability in hippocampal neurones: dynamics and mechanism of the response to chronic depolarization

O’Leary, Timothy; van Rossum, Mark C W; Wyllie, David J A
Fonte: Blackwell Science Inc Publicador: Blackwell Science Inc
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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In order to maintain stable functionality in the face of continually changing input, neurones in the CNS must dynamically modulate their electrical characteristics. It has been hypothesized that in order to retain stable network function, neurones possess homeostatic mechanisms which integrate activity levels and alter network and cellular properties in such a way as to counter long-term perturbations. Here we describe a simple model system where we investigate the effects of sustained neuronal depolarization, lasting up to several days, by exposing cultures of primary hippocampal pyramidal neurones to elevated concentrations (10–30 mm) of KCl. Following exposure to KCl, neurones exhibit lower input resistances and resting potentials, and require more current to be injected to evoke action potentials. This results in a rightward shift in the frequency-input current (FI) curve which is explained by a simple linear model of the subthreshold I–V relationship. No changes are observed in action potential profiles, nor in the membrane potential at which action potentials are evoked. Furthermore, following depolarization, an increase in subthreshold potassium conductance is observed which is accounted for within a biophysical model of the subthreshold I–V characteristics of neuronal membranes. The FI curve shift was blocked by the presence of the L-type Ca2+ channel blocker nifedipine...

Study on Resistance Switching Properties of Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3Thin Films Using Impedance Spectroscopy

Zhang, Ting; Zhang, Xinan; Ding, Linghong; Zhang, Weifeng
Fonte: Springer Publicador: Springer
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 25/07/2009 EN
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The Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3(NBT) thin films sandwiched between Au electrodes and fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) conducting glass were deposited using a sol–gel method. Based on electrochemical workstation measurements, reproducible resistance switching characteristics and negative differential resistances were obtained at room temperature. A local impedance spectroscopy measurement of Au/NBT was performed to reveal the interface-related electrical characteristics. The DC-bias-dependent impedance spectra suggested the occurrence of charge and mass transfer at the interface of the Au/NBT/FTO device. It was proposed that the first and the second ionization of oxygen vacancies are responsible for the conduction in the low- and high-resistance states, respectively. The experimental results showed high potential for nonvolatile memory applications in NBT thin films.

Creation and reduction of a morphologically detailed model of a leech heart interneuron

Tobin, Anne-Elise; Van Hooser, Stephen D.; Calabrese, Ronald L.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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Conductance-based neuron models aid in understanding the role intrinsic and synaptic currents play in producing neuronal activity. Incorporating morphological detail into a model allows for additional analysis of non-homogeneous distributions of active and synaptic conductances, as well as spatial segregation of electrical events. We developed a morphologically detailed “Full Model” of a leech heart interneuron that replicates reasonably well intracellular recordings from these interneurons. However, it comprises hundreds of compartments, each increasing parameter space and simulation time. To reduce the number of compartments of the Full Model, while preserving conductance densities and distributions, its compartments were grouped into functional groups that each share identical conductance densities. Each functional group was sequentially reduced to one or two compartments, preserving surface area, conductance densities and its contribution to input resistance. As a result, the input resistance and membrane time constant were preserved. The axial resistances of several compartments were rescaled to match the amplitude of synaptic currents and low-threshold calcium currents and the shape of action potentials to those in the Full Model. This reduced model...

Position Measurement/Tracking Comparison of the Instrumentation in a Droplet-Actuated-Robotic Platform

Casier, Renaud; Lenders, Cyrille; Lhernould, Marion Sausse; Gauthier, Michaël; Lambert, Pierre
Fonte: Molecular Diversity Preservation International (MDPI) Publicador: Molecular Diversity Preservation International (MDPI)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 07/05/2013 EN
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This paper reports our work on developing a surface tension actuated micro-robotic platform supported by three bubbles (liquid environment) or droplets (gaseous environment). The actuation principle relies on the force developed by surface tension below a millimeter, which benefits from scaling laws, and is used to actuate this new type of compliant robot. By separately controlling the pressure inside each bubble, three degrees of freedom can be actuated. We investigated three sensing solutions to measure the platform attitude in real-time (z-position of each droplet, leading to the knowledge of the z position and Θx and Θy tilts of the platform). The comparison between optical, resistive, and capacitive measurement principles is hereafter reported. The optical technique uses SFH-9201 components. The resistive technique involves measuring the electrical resistance of a path flowing through two droplets and the platform. This innovative technique for sensing table position combines three pairs of resistances, from which the resistance in each drop can be deduced, thus determining the platform position. The third solution is a more usual high frequency (∼200 MHz) capacitive measurement. The resistive method has been proven reliable and is simple to implement. This work opens perspectives toward an interesting sensing solution for micro-robotic platforms.

Planar patterned stretchable electrode arrays based on flexible printed circuits

Taylor, R E; Boyce, C M; Boyce, M C; Pruitt, B L
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /10/2013 EN
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For stretchable electronics to achieve broad industrial application, they must be reliable to manufacture and must perform robustly while undergoing large deformations. We present a new strategy for creating planar stretchable electronics and demonstrate one such device, a stretchable microelectrode array based on flex circuit technology. Stretchability is achieved through novel, rationally designed perforations that provide islands of low strain and continuous low-strain pathways for conductive traces. This approach enables the device to maintain constant electrical properties and planarity while undergoing applied strains up to 15%. Materials selection is not limited to polyimide composite devices and can potentially be implemented with either soft or hard substrates and can incorporate standard metals or new nano-engineered conductors. By using standard flex circuit technology, our planar microelectrode device achieved constant resistances for strains up to 20% with less than a 4% resistance offset over 120,000 cycles at 10% strain.

In Vitro Selection and Characterization of New Probiotic Candidates from Table Olive Microbiota

Botta, Cristian; Langerholc, Tomaz; Cencič, Avrelija; Cocolin, Luca
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 08/04/2014 EN
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To date, only a few studies have investigated the complex microbiota of table olives in order to identify new probiotic microorganisms, even though this food matrix has been shown to be a suitable source of beneficial lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Two hundred and thirty eight LAB, belonging to Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus pentosus and Leuconostoc mesenteroides species, and isolated from Nocellara Etnea table olives, have been screened in this survey through an in vitro approach. A simulation of transit tolerance in the upper human gastrointestinal tract, together with autoaggregation and hydrophobicity, have been decisive in reducing the number of LAB to 17 promising probiotics. None of the selected strains showed intrinsic resistances towards a broad spectrum of antibiotics and were therefore accurately characterized on an undifferentiated and 3D functional model of the human intestinal tract made up of H4-1 epithelial cells. As far as the potential colonization of the intestinal tract is concerned, a high adhesion ratio was observed for Lb. plantarum O2T60C (over 9%) when tested in the 3D functional model, which closely mimics real intestinal conditions. The stimulation properties towards the epithelial barrier integrity and the in vitro inhibition of L. monocytogenes adhesion and invasion have also been assessed. Lb. plantarum S1T10A and S11T3E enhanced trans-epithelial electrical resistance (TEER) and therefore the integrity of the polarized epithelium in the 3D model. Moreover...

Tip-Based Nanofabrication of Arbitrary Shapes of Graphene Nanoribbons for Device Applications

Hu, Huan; Banerjee, Shouvik; Estrada, David; Bashir, Rashid; King, William P.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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Graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) have promising applications in future nanoelectronics, chemical sensing and electrical interconnects. Although there are quite a few GNR nanofabrication methods reported, a rapid and low-cost fabrication method that is capable of fabricating arbitrary shapes of GNRs with good-quality is still in demand for using GNRs for device applications. In this paper, we present a tip-based nanofabrication method capable of fabricating arbitrary shapes of GNRs. A heated atomic force microscope (AFM) tip deposits polymer nanowires atop a CVD-grown graphene surface. The polymer nanowires serve as an etch mask to define GNRs through one step of oxygen plasma etching similar to a photoresist in conventional photolithography. Various shapes of GNRs with either linear or curvilinear features are demonstrated. The width of the GNR is around 270 nm and is determined by the width of the depositing polymer nanowire, which we estimate can be scaled down 15 nms. We characterize our TBN-fabricated GNRs using Raman spectroscopy and I-V measurements. The measured sheet resistances of our GNRs fall within the range of 1.65 kΩ/□−1 – 2.64 kΩ/□−1, in agreement with previously reported values. Furthermore, we determined the high-field breakdown current density of GNRs to be approximately 2.94×108 A/cm2. This TBN process is seamlessly compatible with existing nanofabrication processes...

Microfabrication methods to improve the kinetics of the yttria stabilized zirconia -- platinum -- oxygen electrode

Hertz, Joshua L. (Joshua Lee)
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 194 p.
ENG
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Solid oxide fuel cells are a potential electrical power source that is silent, efficient, modular, and capable of operating on a wide variety of fuels. Unfortunately, current technologies are severely limited in that they provide sufficient power output only at very high temperatures (>800°C). One reason for this is because the electrodes have very poor (and poorly understood) kinetics. The work described in this dissertation involves the microfabrication of model systems with triple phase boundary lengths that varied over an order of magnitude to systematically quantify and ultimately improve the kinetics of platinum electrodes on the surface of yttria stabilized zirconia electrolytes. Platinum electrodes with well controlled geometry were sputtered onto the surface of bulk YSZ and onto sputtered YSZ thin films. An unexpected result was found whereby YSZ films of composition Y0.09Zr0.91O2-x had an ionic conductivity remarkably enhanced by a factor of 20-30. This is attributed to the films exhibiting nanometric grain sizes and thereby stabilizing the cubic morphology at considerably lower yttrium levels than is normally needed. This metastable cubic phase is suspected of having reduced defect ordering.; (cont.) Grain boundary resistance...