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Um modelo de design de rede para exportação da soja no Brasil = Design network model applied to brazilian soybeans exportation; Design network model applied to brazilian soybeans exportation

Ana Paula Milanez
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 18/03/2014 PT
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55.68%
A cadeia de exportação da soja tem alta participação no desempenho econômico do país. No entanto, as principais áreas produtoras são expostas a diversos problemas logísticos decorrentes da falta de planejamento e de investimentos em infraestrutura. Como resultado, os produtores são onerados pelos custos diminuindo seu capital disponível para investimentos, o que compromete as safras futuras e a projeção econômica do país. Diante desta realidade o governo brasileiro tem tomado medidas e realizando investimentos para sanar estes problemas. Os investimentos realizados em infraestrutura devem ser planejados para o longo prazo. Deste modo, este trabalho propõe a análise de um modelo capacitado de design de rede de hubs e, posteriormente, com base no mesmo, desenvolve três de modelos matemáticos que descrevem a cadeia exportação da soja e suas especificidades a fim de, criar uma ferramenta de análise para definir a localização de facilidades, armazenadoras/ consolidadoras/ redirecionadoras de fluxo, as rotas a serem utilizadas e a utilização dos portos para otimizar esta cadeia. Para aplicar os modelos, o Estado do Mato Grosso foi selecionado como foco do estudo., e com base no qual, foi realizado um extenso levantamento de dados da soja. Considerando que o Estado do Mato Grosso é dividido em 22 microrregiões foram esti-madas a quantidade de soja produzida...

Divergent functions of VTI12 and VTI11 in trafficking to storage and lytic vacuoles in Arabidopsis

Sanmartín, Maite; Ordóñez, Angel; Sohn, Eun Ju; Robert, Stephanie; Sánchez-Serrano, José Juán; Surpin, Marci A.; Raikhel, Natasha V.; Rojo, Enrique
Fonte: National Academy of Sciences Publicador: National Academy of Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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45.82%
The protein storage vacuole (PSV) is a plant-specific organelle that accumulates reserve proteins, one of the main agricultural products obtained from crops. Despite the importance of this process, the cellular machinery required for transport and accumulation of storage proteins remains largely unknown. Interfering with transport to PSVs has been shown to result in secretion of cargo. Therefore, secretion of a suitable marker could be used as an assay to identify mutants in this pathway. CLV3, a negative regulator of shoot stem cell proliferation, is an extracellular ligand that is rendered inactive when targeted to vacuoles. We devised an assay where trafficking mutants secrete engineered vacuolar CLV3 and show reduced meristems, a phenotype easily detected by visual inspection of plants. We tested this scheme in plants expressing VAC2, a fusion of CLV3 to the vacuolar sorting signal from the storage protein barley lectin. In this way, we determined that trafficking of VAC2 requires the SNARE VTI12 but not its close homologue, the conditionally redundant VTI11 protein. Furthermore, a vti12 mutant is specifically altered in transport of storage proteins, whereas a vti11 mutant is affected in transport of a lytic vacuole marker. These results demonstrate the specialization of VTI12 and VTI11 in mediating trafficking to storage and lytic vacuoles...

Self-assembly of Glut4 Storage Vesicles during Differentiation of 3T3-L1 Adipocytes*

Shi, Jun; Huang, Guanrong; Kandror, Konstantin V.
Fonte: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Publicador: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 31/10/2008 EN
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45.62%
Glut4 storage vesicles (GSVs) represent translocation-competent vesicular carriers in fat and skeletal muscle cells that deliver Glut4 to the plasma membrane in response to insulin stimulation. GSVs include three major cargo proteins: Glut4, insulin-responsive aminopeptidase (IRAP), and sortilin. Previous work has suggested that the lumenal interaction between Glut4 and sortilin and the cytoplasmic interaction between sortilin and GGA adaptors play an important role in recruitment of Glut4 into the GSVs. However, the mechanism of IRAP targeting to this compartment remains unknown. To address this question, we show that in differentiating adipocytes IRAP enters the GSVs from the “donor” membranes on day 3 of differentiation. Forced expression of sortilin in undifferentiated cells does not recruit IRAP into the vesicles. However, double expression of sortilin and Glut4 reconstitutes functional GSVs that incorporate endogenous IRAP. To explain this process, we show by a yeast two-hybrid system and chemical cross-linking that the lumenal domain of IRAP can interact with the lumenal loop of Glut4. IRAP without the lumenal domain is faithfully targeted to the donor membranes but has significantly lower insulin responsiveness than full-length IRAP. We suggest that lumenal interactions between Glut4 and IRAP play an important role in the assembly of the GSVs.

Why Does Cargo Spend Weeks in African Ports? The Case of Douala, Cameroon

Refas, Salim; Cantens, Thomas
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
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36%
This paper investigates the main factors explaining long container dwell times in African Ports. Using original and extensive data on container imports in the Port of Douala, it seeks to provide a basic understanding of why containers stay on average more than two weeks in gateway ports in Africa while long dwell times are widely recognized as a critical hindrance to economic development. It also demonstrates the interrelationships that exist between logistics performance of consignees, operational performance of port operators and efficiency of customs clearance operations. Shipment level analysis is used to identify the main determinants of long cargo dwell times and the impact of shipment characteristics such as fiscal regime, density of value, bulking and packaging type, last port of call, and region of origin or commodity group on cargo dwell time in ports is tested. External factors, such as performance of clearing and forwarding agents, shippers and shipping line strategies, also play an important role in the determination of long dwell times. Cargo dwell time distribution has many specificities...

Cargo Dwell Time in Durban : Lessons for Sub-Saharan African Ports

Kgare, Tshepo; Raballand, Gael; Ittmann, Hans W.
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
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Based on quantitative and qualitative data, this paper attempts to identify the main reasons why cargo dwell time in Durban port has dramatically reduced in the past decade to a current average of 3-4 days. A major customs reform; changes in port storage tariffs coupled with strict enforcement; massive investments in infrastructure and equipment; and changing customer behavior through contractualization between the port operator and shipping lines or between customs, importers, and brokers have all played a major role. The main lesson for Sub-Saharan Africa that can be drawn from Durban is that cargo dwell time is mainly a function of the characteristics of the private sector, but it is the onus of public sector players, such as customs and the port authority, to put pressure on the private sector to make more efficient use of the port and reduce cargo dwell time.

The Cost of Being Landlocked : Logistics Costs and Supply Chain Reliability

Arvis, Jean-François; Raballand, Gael; Marteau, Jean-François
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
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A large proportion of the least developed countries are landlocked and their access to world markets depends on the availability of a trade corridor and transit systems. Based on empirical evidence from World Bank projects and assessments in Africa, Central Asia, and elsewhere, this paper proposes a microeconomic quantitative description of logistics costs. The paper theoretically and empirically highlights that landlocked economies are primarily affected not only by a high cost of freight services but also by the high degree of unpredictability in transportation time. The main sources of costs are not only physical constraints but widespread rent activities and severe flaws in the implementation of the transit systems, which prevent the emergence of reliable logistics services. The business and donor community should push toward implementation of comprehensive facilitation strategies, primarily at the national level, and the design of robust and resilient transport and transit regimes. A better understanding of the political economy of transit and a review of the implementation successes and failures in this area are needed.

Bosnia and Herzegovina - The Road to Europe : Annex 5. Inland Waterways Transport - Realizing the Potential

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
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This report highlights deficiencies and indicates priorities for a prospective national transport strategy and action plan for further consideration by key stakeholders. The overall objective should be the development of a transport system, and an institutional framework, that facilitates rather than constrains, economic development in Bosnia and Herzegovina. A strong transport system contributes to economic growth by reducing the economic distance to markets by expanding opportunities for trade, by improving the competitiveness of national locations for production and distribution, and by facilitating mobility for a country s citizens; while minimizing the social and environmental costs of the transport sector. The report concludes by recommending actions that aim to improve the institutional framework, improve the sustainability of the transport sector, facilitate broad based economic growth, and mitigate the social and environmental detriments associated with transport. Specific policy recommendations are presented to accomplish these conclusions.

Transport and Logistics in Djibouti : Contribution to Job Creation and Economic Diversification

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
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The objective of this policy note is: (i) assessing the current situation of the transport and logistics sector in Djibouti, in particular regarding employment; (ii) examining the potential of the sector for creating jobs and generating new activities; and (iii) analyzing the constraints and making recommendations to alleviate. The note is divided into three chapters: (1) a diagnosis of transport and logistics; (2) opportunities and strategic priorities for the future; and (3) a suggested action plan. This policy note deals with transport and logistics and provides key input to the Djibouti New Growth Model study. The note relies on the findings of the World Bank mission that visited Djibouti in January 2012 to collect data and interview various representatives of the public and private sectors, as well as on a literature review. The note concludes that transport and logistics have a relatively limited potential for reducing unemployment since port activities are capital-intensive; the trucking industry serving the corridor to Ethiopia is totally dominated by Ethiopians; and the ongoing improvement of the supply chain s efficiency tends to cut jobs for a given volume of trade.

Why Does Cargo Spend Weeks in Sub-Saharan African Ports? Lessons from Six Countries

Raballand, Gaël; Refas, Salim; Beuran, Monica; Isik, Gözde
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
EN_US
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This study is timely because several investments are planned for container terminals in Sub-Saharan Africa. From a public policy perspective, disentangling the reasons behind cargo delays in ports is crucial to understanding:a) whether projects by the World Bank and other donors have addressed the most salient problems; and b) whether institutional port reform and infrastructure, sometimes complemented by customs reform, are the most appropriate approaches or should be adapted. Without such identification and quantification, projects may ultimately result in a limited impact, and structural problems of long delays will remain. Dwell time figures are a major commercial instrument used to attract cargo and generate revenues. Therefore, the incentives for a port authority and a container terminal operator are increasingly strong to lower the real figure to attract more cargo. At the same time, ports are more and more in competition, so the question of how to obtain independently verifiable dwell time data is increasingly critical to provide assurance that interventions are indeed having the intended effect.

Air Freight : A Market Study with Implications for Landlocked Countries

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
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To facilitate air freight, landlocked countries need to improve operations at their airports and liberalize access for foreign airlines. But until those countries become major exporters, it is unlikely that scheduled air cargo operators will have significant operations. Instead, most air cargo will move as belly cargo on passenger airlines, with some complementary use of chartered air freighters during shipment peaks. Landlocked countries should therefore provide greater access to foreign passenger airlines.

Review of Cost of Compliance with the New International Freight Transport Security Requirements : Consolidated Report of the Investigations Carried Out in Ports in the Africa, Europe and Central Asia, and Latin America and Caribbean Regions

Kruk, C. Bert; Donner, Michel Luc
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.9%
Without transport there is no economic development and, in a reciprocal conclusion, the more efficient transport is, the better is the development. Bearing in mind that more than 90 percent of the world trade in tons per year is transported by sea and against the background of increasing ship sizes (especially in the container trade) and continuously growing globalization, the requirements for adequate and secure port facilities and the resulting logistics challenges are accelerating worldwide. The International Ship and Port Facility Security Code (ISPS code) is a comprehensive set of measures to enhance the security of ships and port facilities and came into force on the July 1, 2004. The ISPS code is implemented through chapter XI-2 special measures to enhance maritime security in the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS). The code has two parts, one mandatory (part A) and one recommendatory (part B). Compliance is mandatory for the 148 contracting parties to SOLAS; detailed implementation of the code is a matter for the individual national governments. The introduction of the ISPS Code has led to many questions and misunderstandings. The code does not...

Corridor Transport Observatory Guidelines

Hartmann, Olivier
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
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The Northern Corridor, connecting East Africa to the World through the port of Mombasa, is one of the oldest corridor authorities in Africa, as it was established in 1985. Throughout its years of existence, it has been a source of ideas and knowledge that contributed to the thinking on trade facilitation. To a large extent, it is the birthplace of the concept of corridor transport observatory, and through successive models and revisions, it helped shape what transport observatories are. Transport Observatories emerged as the result of the efforts made over the years to address the specific challenges faced by landlocked developing countries. Most of these countries rely heavily on overseas markets as outlets for their productions and as source for their imports, but for that, they must transit through a coastal country. They are at a disadvantage when it comes to competing on equal terms with other economies for integrating into the world market. The handicaps attached to that remoteness are well known and many: a longer time to import or export...

Logistics, Transport and Food Prices in LAC : Policy Guidance for Improving Efficiency and Reducing Costs

Schwartz, Jordan; Guasch, Jose Luis; Wilmsmeier, Gordon; Stokenberga, Aiga
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
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This introductory section explains the rationale for the guidance note, reflecting on the relevance of food prices in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC), their impact on the poor and the effect that logistics and transport costs have on those prices. Based upon that framework, the note provides an overview of the logistics and transport hurdles faced by importers and consumers in the region as food products move through the logistics chain. The final section of the report provides some policy guidance that could improve the efficiency of logistics systems in LAC and reduce the price of delivered foods.

Guatemala : Elements of a Transport and Logistics Strategy

Dumitrescu, Anca C.; Smith, Graham; Osborne, Theresa K.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
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This document has been produced by the World Bank to support the Government of Guatemala as it improves its transport and logistics sector management in pursuit of enhanced country competitiveness. It identifies and defines elements of a National Transport and Logistics Strategy (NTLS) through the development of a methodology which analyzes bottlenecks and related costs along the main logistics corridors. It does so with a view to (a) mobilizing support in the trading community (essentially private sector) for logistic service improvements, (b) identifying the need for broader public-sector reforms in transport which indirectly impact logistics performance, and (c) helping the Government to set sector priorities and hence to prioritize public investment. At the same time, it points out where improved data and monitoring of performance are needed in order to better quantify economic costs, diagnose key logistics issues, and track improved performance. It thereby proposes, as part of the set of recommended activities...

Georgias Transport and Logistics Strategy

Benmaamar, Mustapha; Keou, Oceane; Saslavsky, Daniel
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
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This policy note describes the state of transport and logistics in Georgia, carries out a needs assessment and identifies the main areas for improvements.The purpose of this policy note is to develop a common understanding between the Government of Georgia (GoG) and its partners of the institutional and physical challenges which face the transport and logistics sector, and of a strategy for meeting these challenges in the medium-term. The policy note identifies the key strategic directions and actions which will enable the sector to grow and improve. It intends to help the Bank and the development partners to engage with the GoG in dialogue on the critical bottlenecks and to provide the Government with advice based on the Bank’s international experience. The strategic directions outlined in this policy note require institutional reforms. This is inevitably a long term process but one which will gradually improve Georgia’s Logistics Performance Index ranking and its trade and competiveness.

Mongolia Trade and Transport Facilitation Action Plan

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Policy Note; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
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35.91%
This report develops and expand on the Trade Facilitation and Logistics Development Strategy Report, published in December 2006. This report employs a supply chain perspective which focuses on the trade and transportation needs of the products and supply chains assessed. These specific needs are then compared with the trade facilitation services available, the gaps between these and the needs identified, recommendations made for closing the gaps. Three export and three import products/product groups have been chosen for analysis, for the highest export growthpotential. Given the recent dramatic decline in the market price of minerals and the drop in demand for them, diversification of Mongolia's economy and international trade has assumed renewed importance. In this review we have combined attention to traditional exports as support for diversification of trade, while not ignoring the export of minerals and import of mining equipment as these will continue to be important.

Bhutan : Transport Sector Note

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Infrastructure Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.88%
Landlocked Bhutan faces unique challenges, and opportunities as it pursues the development of its transport sector into the 21st century. Bhutan's population growth rate is high, rural-urban migration is accelerating, and, fueled by sustained economic growth, the country is urbanizing rapidly, giving rise to an expanding urban middle class, with rising expectations of well-paid employment, accessible services, and consumption potential. However, accessibility to a large measure depends on availability of reliable, and affordable transportation. Poor rural access is synonymous with rural isolation, and poverty, while high external and domestic transport costs constrain the country's economic and social development. Transportation poses a considerable cost disadvantage to business and commercial undertakings; road transport is slow and regularly disrupted by landslides and flooding; air transport is costly and erratic. Costly transport is a major factor constraining the development of tourism, horticultural exports...

Ghana’s Infrastructure : A Continental Perspective

Foster, Vivien; Pushak, Nataliya
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.9%
Infrastructure contributed just over one percentage point to Ghana's annual per capital GDP growth during the 2000s. Raising the country s infrastructure endowment to that of the region's middle-income countries could boost the annual growth rate by more than 2.7 percentage points. Ghana has an advanced infrastructure platform when compared with other low-income countries in Africa. The country s coverage levels for rural water, electricity, and GSM signals are impressive. A large share of the road network is in good or fair condition. Institutional reforms have been adopted in the ICT, ports, roads, and water supply sectors. Ghana s most pressing challenges lie in the power sector, where outmoded transmission and distribution assets, rapid demand growth, and periodic hydrological shocks leave the country reliant on high-cost oil-based generation. Exceptionally high losses in water distribution leave little to reach end customers, who are thus exposed to intermittent supplies. Addressing Ghana's infrastructure challenges will require raising annual expenditures to $2.3 billion. The country already spends about $1.2 billion per year on infrastructure...

Trade Facilitation, Value Creation, and Competiveness : Policy Implications for Vietnam's Economic Growth, Volume 2; Tao thuan loi thuong mai, tao gia tri, va nang luc canh tranh : goi y chinh sach cho tang truong kinh te Viet Nam

Pham, Duc Minh; Mishra, Deepak; Cheong, Kee-Cheok; Arnold, John; Trinh, Anh Minh; Ngo, Huyen Thi Ngoc; Nguyen, Hien Thi Phuong
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Poverty Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.71%
This report explores the role of trade facilitation and logistics in driving export and ultimately national competitiveness. It posits that this area of trade consists of three interrelated pillars: (i) transport infrastructure and logistics services; (ii) regulatory procedures for exports and imports; and (iii) supply chain organization. Transport infrastructure and logistics services relate to the physical aspects of trade flows. Logistics services include a variety of services, the most important of which are transportation, storage and consolidation. This summary is organized into nine sections. After the introduction, section two presents the conceptual framework for this study. The economic context under which trade facilitation is discussed is outlined in section three. It describes Vietnam's evolving structure of trade and competitiveness. The country's trade logistics is part of this structure and this is germane to understanding the key issues and solutions proposed. This is followed by discussion of the three pillars of trade facilitation in sections four to six and then section seven presents the institutional framework underpinning these pillars. Section eight then pulls together the diverse roles of government...

The Impact of Demand on Cargo Dwell Time in Ports in SSA

Beuran, Monica; Mahihenni, Mohamed Hadi; Raballand, Gael; Refas, Salim
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.96%
Long cargo dwell times in ports are a critical issue in Sub-Saharan African countries since they result in slow import processes and are bound to dramatically reduce trade. The main objective of this study is to analyze long dwell times' causes in ports in Sub-Saharan Africa from a shipper's perspective. The findings point to the crucial importance of private sector practices and incentives. The authors argue in the case of Sub-Saharan African countries that private operators, rather than being advocates of reforms in this area, might be responsible for the failures of many of these initiatives. It seems that in Sub-Saharan Africa importers' and freight forwarders' professionalism, cash constraints and operators' strategies are some of the factors that have a major impact on cargo dwell time. Low competency, cash constraints and low storage tariffs explain why most importers have little incentive to reduce cargo dwell time since in most cases, this would increase their input costs. However, monopolists/cartels may have a stronger incentive to reduce cargo dwell time but only in order to maximize their profit (and would not adjust prices downward).