A modular microfluidic airways model system that can simulate the changes in oxygen tension in different compartments of the cystic fibrosis (CF) airways was designed, developed, and tested. The fully reconfigurable system composed of modules with different functionalities: multichannel peristaltic pumps, bubble traps, gas exchange chip, and cell culture chambers. We have successfully applied this system for studying the antibiotic therapy of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, the bacteria mainly responsible for morbidity and mortality in cystic fibrosis, in different oxygen environments. Furthermore, we have mimicked the bacterial reinoculation of the aerobic compartments (lower respiratory tract) from the anaerobic compartments (cystic fibrosis sinuses) following an antibiotic treatment. This effect is hypothesised as the one on the main reasons for recurrent lung infections in cystic fibrosis patients.
Using high resolution focused ion beam scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM) we study the details of cell-nanostructure interactions using serial block face imaging. 3T3 Fibroblast cellular monolayers are cultured on flat glass as a control surface and on two types of nanostructured scaffold substrates made from silicon black (Nanograss) with low- and high nanowire density. After culturing for 72 hours the cells were fixed, heavy metal stained, embedded in resin, and processed with FIB-SEM block face imaging without removing the substrate. The sample preparation procedure, image acquisition and image post-processing were specifically optimised for cellular monolayers cultured on nanostructured substrates. Cells display a wide range of interactions with the nanostructures depending on the surface morphology, but also greatly varying from one cell to another on the same substrate, illustrating a wide phenotypic variability. Depending on the substrate and cell, we observe that cells could for instance: break the nanowires and engulf them, flatten the nanowires or simply reside on top of them. Given the complexity of interactions, we have categorised our observations and created an overview map. The results demonstrate that detailed nanoscale resolution images are required to begin understanding the wide variety of individual cells’ interactions with a structured substrate. The map will provide a framework for light microscopy studies of such interactions indicating what modes of interactions must be considered.
The genus Gasteruption Latreille, 1796 (Hymenoptera: Evanioidea: Gasteruptiidae: Gasteruptiinae) from North Iran and Turkey is revised, keyed and fully illustrated for the first time. In total 36 species are treated of which 33 are recorded from Turkey and 23 from Iran. Fifteen species are new for science: Gasteruption
aciculatum van Achterberg, sp. n., Gasteruption
agrenum van Achterberg, sp. n., Gasteruption
brevibasale van Achterberg & Saure, sp. n., Gasteruption
coriacoxale van Achterberg, sp. n., Gasteruption
flavimarginatum van Achterberg, sp. n., Gasteruption
heminitidum van Achterberg, sp. n., Gasteruption
henseni van Achterberg, sp. n., Gasteruption
ischnolaimum van Achterberg, sp. n., Gasteruption
nigrapiculatum van Achterberg, sp. n., Gasteruption
paglianoi van Achterberg & Saure, sp. n., Gasteruption
pseudolaticeps van Achterberg, sp. n., Gasteruption
punctifrons van Achterberg, sp. n., Gasteruption
schmideggeri van Achterberg & Saure, sp. n., Gasteruption
scorteum van Achterberg, sp. n. and Gasteruption
smitorum van Achterberg, sp. n. Twenty-one species are reported new for Turkey and 16 species new for Iran. Fifteen new synonyms are proposed: Foenus
terrestris Tournier, 1877, Gasteruption
trifossulatum Kieffer, 1904, and Gasteruption
A critical and annotated catalogue of 72 types of Chrysididae (Hymenoptera) belonging to 53 species and subspecies housed in the Swedish Museum of Natural History is given. The lectotypes of Chrysis
diversa Dahlbom, 1845, Chrysis
soror Dahlbom, 1854, Chrysura
sulcata Dahlbom, 1845 and Holopyga
amoenula Dahlbom, 1845 are designated. The previous lectotype of Chrysis
diversa Dahlbom, 1845 is set aside. Five new synonymies are proposed: Chrysis
smaragdula Trautmann, 1926 (currently Chrysis
interrogata Linsenmaier, 1959 repl. name for smaragdula Trautmann, nec Fabricius, 1775), syn. n. of Chrysis
confluens (Dahlbom, 1845); Chrysis
eximia Mocsáry, 1889, syn. n. of Chrysis
poecila Mocsáry, 1889; Chrysis
pyrrhina Dahlbom, 1845, syn. n. of Chrysis
erythromelas Dahlbom, 1845; Chrysis
separata Trautmann, 1926, syn. n. of Chrysis
lateralis Dahlbom, 1845; Chrysis
sicula Abeille de Perrin, 1877, syn. n. of Chrysis
erythromelas Dahlbom, 1845. Chrysis
serena Radoszkowski, 1891 is the first available name for Chrysis
erythromelas Dahlbom, 1845 is revaluated as valid species. The neotype of Chrysis
inaequalis Dahlbom, 1845 is designated in the Linsenmaier collection (NMLS). Illustrations of 34 types are given.
Bees are used to pollinate plants in isolation cages. Usually the bees have previously flown about freely in the open air and may have gathered pollen from the same plant species.
Now the question arises whether the bees can contaminate with this pollen plants with whick they are enclosed in an isolation cage. In this connection a number of experiments were undertaken to find out how long bees are loaded with germinable pollen. It appeared that the risk of contamination was practicalIy eliminated by keeping the bees in a house or empty isolation cage for 12 hours.
Tests made on larvae in normal bee colonies with pure cultures of Streptococcus pluton (White), Streptococcus faecalis Andrews and Horder, and Bacillus alvei Cheshire and Cheyne, three bacterial species commonly associated with European foulbrood (EFB), showed that S. pluton was the natural prirnary etiological agent. These results, together with other recent work, indicate that S. pluton is the cause of EFB throughout the world. Of the other associated bacterial species, Bacterium eurydice White, which is the most commnon, and S. faecalis probably have supplementary pathogenic effects. Bacillus alvei and other less common bacilli are saprophytes of the dead larvae.
An outbreak of a septicaemic condition of bees occurred in East Gippsland, Victoria, during the autumn, winter, and spring of 1958. The condition appears to conform generally with cases of septicaemia recorded in Canada, United States, and France. A causative organism has been isolated from septicaemic bees in Victoria which appears to fall into the type of the Pseudomonas species of Landerkin and Katznelson (1959). This organism has been proved pathogenic to bees when inoculated by dipping or injection.
The sounds produced by the thoracic flight machinery of bees and flies appear to be composed of two main vibration modes. The lower frequency one corresponds to the wingbeat frequency. The higher frequency
vibration, which is in the kcps. range, is reset in phase on every wingbeat half-cycle. Therefore Sonagraphic or Fourier analysis of the sounds gives only harmonics of the wingbeat frequency. However, oscillograms of the waveforms show that the higher frequency vibration is nearly independent of wingbeat frequency.
The high frequency vibration is probably important in bee communication.
We speculate that it is due to skeletal vibration which is relatively undamped by muscular and aerodynamic loading.
Honey bees (Apis mellifera Linnaeus) from Austria and Switzerland, suffering from Waldtrachtkrankheit, and from Italy and Norway suffering from Mal Noir contained as much chronic bee paralysis virus as bees suffering from “paralysis” in Britain and Malta. These diseases appear to be etiologically the same, therefore, and the variable and unreliable signs sometimes exhibited are perhaps caused by factors secondary to infection by the virus. Apparently healthy bees from Canada and Italy were infected with the virus of acute paralysis, as they are in Britain.
(Language) In English and French.; (Dates or Sequential Designation) Vol. 9, no. 36 (Nov. 2, 1835)-v. 45, whole no. 15709 (June 29, 1872).; Published as: New Orleans bee, Nov. 12, 1838-July 24, 1840; Apr. 4, 1851-1872.; Published with an additional masthead in French: L'Abeille de la Nouvelle-Orléans, May 1, 1843-1872, with masthead on occasional issues in 1862 reading: L'Abeille de la Nlle-Orléans.
TABLE DES MATIERES :
Qu'est-ce qu'une abeille? Organisation générale et fonctions, classification des abeilles.
Apidae sociales :
L'abeille domestique, physiologie de la ruche, extension géographique de l'abeille domestique, ses principales races, autres espèces du genre Apis, les bourdons, les Psithyres, les Mélipones.
Apidae solitaires :
Les Xylocopides, les Anthophorides, les Gastrilegides, les Osmies, les Anthidies, les Mégachiles, les Chalicodomes, les abeilles parasites, les Stélides, les Nomadines.
Acutilingues, les Andrenes, les Halictes, les Sphécodes, les Dasypodes, les Panurgues, les Cilisses, Obtusilingues, les Collètes, les Prosopis, fleurs et abeilles.
1) Using several methods, the larval food of Melipona quadrifasciata was found to contain amounts of acetylcholine estimated to range between O. 5 and 2.0 mg. equivalents of acetylcholine chloride per gram of larval food. Similar amounts have been reported for the larval food of the honey, bee, Apis mellifera.
2) The larval food of M. quadrifasciata was also found to contain a large amount of choline and an unidentified substance that was soluble in ethanol, gave a blue fluorescence, reacted with Dragendorf's reagent, and had a weak acetylcholine-like action. In one sample of larval food, a substance with the properties of glycine betaine was also found.
3) Samples of stored pollen were also found to contain acetylcholine, choline and the unidentified substance.
4) One sample of M. quadrifasciata honey contained 8 p,g. of acetylcholine per gram of honey.
5) In two lots of adult M. quadrifasciata, much more acetylcholine was found in abdomens than in heads or thoraces.
6) Anthers and pollen of several species of trees and plants have all been found to contain choline. Some also contain acetylcholine and glycine betaine, while all yielded the unidentified, bluefluorescing material.
7) It is suggested that the acetylcholine and other quaternary bases that are to be found in the larval food of M. quadrifasciata are derived from the pollens on which these bees feed; that they are conserved and concentrated in the digestive tract and transferred by the nurse bees to the larval food.
TABLE DES MATIERES :
Matériel et méthode.
L'influence de l'âge sur les échanges de nourriture entre les ouvrières.
L'influence de la durée et de la température sur les échange alimentaires.
L'influence du nombre des abeilles présentes dans un groupe sur la répartition de la nourriture.
Les échanges de nourriture entre des ouvrières appartenant à des colonies différentes.
Transit intestinal et localisation du phosphore 32 dans le corps d'une abeille.
Echanges de nourriture entre les ouvrières et les reines vierges et fécondes.
Conclusions. /// CONTENTS:
Material and method.
Influence of age on food exchanges between workers.
Influence of duration and temperature on food exchanges.
Influence of the number of bees within a group on food dispaching.
Food exchanges between workers belonging to different colonies.
Intestinal transit and localisation of phosphore 32 in a bee body.
Food exchanges between workers and virgin or fecund queens.
Conclusions.; Thèse de Doctorat