Últimos itens adicionados do Acervo: Universidade da Madeira

A Universidade da Madeira (UMa) é uma universidade pública portuguesa. Localizada na cidade do Funchal, na Região Autónoma da Madeira, foi criada a 13 de Setembro de 1988.

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A sensitive microextraction by packed sorbent-based methodology combined with ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography as a powerful technique for analysis of biologically active flavonols in wines

Silva, Catarina L.; Gonçalves, João L.; Câmara, José S.
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /08/2012 ENG
A new approach based on microextraction by packed sorbent (MEPS) and reversed-phase high-throughput ultra high pressure liquid chromatography (UHPLC) method that uses a gradient elution and diode array detection to quantitate three biologically active flavonols in wines, myricetin, quercetin, and kaempferol, is described. In addition to performing routine experiments to establish the validity of the assay to internationally accepted criteria (selectivity, linearity, sensitivity, precision, accuracy), experiments are included to assess the effect of the important experimental parameters such as the type of sorbent material (C2, C8, C18, SIL, and C8/SCX), number of extraction cycles (extract-discard), elution volume, sample volume, and ethanol content, on the MEPS performance. The optimal conditions of MEPS extraction were obtained using C8 sorbent and small sample volumes (250 μL) in five extraction cycle and in a short time period (about 5 min for the entire sample preparation step). Under optimized conditions, excellent linearity View the MathML source(Rvalues2>0.9963), limits of detection of 0.006 μg mL−1 (quercetin) to 0.013 μg mL−1 (myricetin) and precision within 0.5–3.1% were observed for the target flavonols. The average recoveries of myricetin...

Dynamic headspace solid-phase microextraction combined with one-dimensional gas chromatography–mass spectrometry as a powerful tool to differentiate banana cultivars based on their volatile metabolite profile

Pontes, Marisela; Pereira, Jorge; Câmara, José S.
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /04/2012 ENG
In this study the effect of the cultivar on the volatile profile of five different banana varieties was evaluated and determined by dynamic headspace solid-phase microextraction (dHS-SPME) combined with one-dimensional gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (1D-GC–qMS). This approach allowed the definition of a volatile metabolite profile to each banana variety and can be used as pertinent criteria of differentiation. The investigated banana varieties (Dwarf Cavendish, Prata, Maçã, Ouro and Platano) have certified botanical origin and belong to the Musaceae family, the most common genomic group cultivated in Madeira Island (Portugal). The influence of dHS-SPME experimental factors, namely, fibre coating, extraction time and extraction temperature, on the equilibrium headspace analysis was investigated and optimised using univariate optimisation design. A total of 68 volatile organic metabolites (VOMs) were tentatively identified and used to profile the volatile composition in different banana cultivars, thus emphasising the sensitivity and applicability of SPME for establishment of the volatile metabolomic pattern of plant secondary metabolites. Ethyl esters were found to comprise the largest chemical class accounting 80.9%, 86.5%...

Phenolic profile of Sercial and Tinta Negra Vitis vinifera L. grape skins by HPLC–DAD–ESI-MSn: novel phenolic compounds in Vitis vinifera L. grape

Perestrelo, Rosa; Lu, Ying; Santos, Sónia A. O.; Silvestre, Armando J. D.; Neto, Carlos P.; Câmara, José S.; Rocha, Sílvia M.
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /11/2012 ENG
This study represents the first phytochemical research of phenolic components of Sercial and Tinta Negra Vitis vinifera L. The phenolic profiles of Sercial and Tinta Negra V. vinifera L. grape skins (white and red varieties, respectively) were established using high performance liquid chromatography–diode array detection–electrospray ionisation tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC–DAD–ESI-MSn), at different ripening stages (véraison and maturity). A total of 40 phenolic compounds were identified, which included 3 hydroxybenzoic acids, 8 hydroxycinnamic acids, 4 flavanols, 5 flavanones, 8 flavonols, 4 stilbenes, and 8 anthocyanins. For the white variety, in both ripening stages, hydroxycinnamic acids and flavonols were the main phenolic classes, representing about 80% of the phenolic composition. For red variety, at véraison, hydroxycinnamic acids and flavonols were also the predominant classes (71%), but at maturity, anthocyanins represented 84% of the phenolic composition. As far as we know, 10 compounds were reported for the first time in V. vinifera L. grapes, namely protocatechuic acid-glucoside, p-hydroxybenzoyl glucoside, caftaric acid vanilloyl pentoside, p-coumaric acid-erythroside, naringenin hexose derivate, eriodictyol-glucoside...

Development of a novel microextraction by packed sorbent-based approach followed by ultrahigh pressure liquid chromatography as a powerful technique for quantification phenolic constituents of biological interest in wines

Gonçalves, João; Mendes, Berta; Silva, Catarina L.; Câmara, José S.
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /03/2012 ENG
A novel analytical approach, based on a miniaturized extraction technique, the microextraction by packed sorbent (MEPS), followed by ultrahigh pressure liquid chromatography (UHPLC) separation combined with a photodiode array (PDA) detection, has been developed and validated for the quantitative determination of sixteen biologically active phenolic constituents of wine. In addition to performing routine experiments to establish the validity of the assay to internationally accepted criteria (linearity, sensitivity, selectivity, precision, accuracy), experiments are included to assess the effect of the important experimental parameters on the MEPS performance such as the type of sorbent material (C2, C8, C18, SIL, and M1), number of extraction cycles (extract-discard), elution volume, sample volume, and ethanol content, were studied. The optimal conditions of MEPS extraction were obtained using C8 sorbent and small sample volumes (250 μL) in five extraction cycle and in a short time period (about 5 min for the entire sample preparation step). The wine bioactive phenolics were eluted by 250 μL of the mixture containing 95% methanol and 5% water, and the separation was carried out on a HSS T3 analytical column (100 mm × 2.1 mm, 1.8 μm particle size) using a binary mobile phase composed of aqueous 0.1% formic acid (eluent A) and methanol (eluent B) in the gradient elution mode (10 min of total analysis). The method gave satisfactory results in terms of linearity with r2-values > 0.9986 within the established concentration range. The LOD varied from 85 ng mL−1 (ferulic acid) to 0.32 μg mL−1 ((+)-catechin)...

A new and improved strategy combining a dispersive-solid phase extraction-based multiclass method with ultra high pressure liquid chromatography for analysis of low molecular weight polyphenols in vegetables

Silva, Catarina L.; Haesen, Nathaly; Câmara, José S.
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /10/2012 ENG
This paper reports on the development and optimization of a modified Quick, Easy, Cheap Effective, Rugged and Safe (QuEChERS) based extraction technique coupled with a clean-up dispersive-solid phase extraction (dSPE) as a new, reliable and powerful strategy to enhance the extraction efficiency of free low molecular-weight polyphenols in selected species of dietary vegetables. The process involves two simple steps. First, the homogenized samples are extracted and partitioned using an organic solvent and salt solution. Then, the supernatant is further extracted and cleaned using a dSPE technique. Final clear extracts of vegetables were concentrated under vacuum to near dryness and taken up into initial mobile phase (0.1% formic acid and 20% methanol). The separation and quantification of free low molecular weight polyphenols from the vegetable extracts was achieved by ultrahigh pressure liquid chromatography (UHPLC) equipped with a phodiode array (PDA) detection system and a Trifunctional High Strength Silica capillary analytical column (HSS T3), specially designed for polar compounds. The performance of the method was assessed by studying the selectivity, linear dynamic range, the limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ)...

Headspace solid-phase microextraction combined with mass spectrometry as a powerful analytical tool for profiling the terpenoid metabolomic pattern of hop-essential oil derived from Saaz variety

Gonçalves, João; Figueira, José; Rodrigues, Fátima; Câmara, José S.
Fonte: WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA Publicador: WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /05/2012 ENG
Hop(HumuluslupulusL.,Cannabaceaefamily)isprizedforitsessentialoilcontents,usedin beer production and, more recently, in biological and pharmacological applications. In this work,a methodinvolvingheadspace solid-phase microextractionand gas chromatography– mass spectrometry was developed and optimized to establish the terpenoid (monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes) metabolomic pattern of hop-essential oil derived from Saaz variety as a mean to explore this matrix as a powerful biological source for newer, more selective, biodegradable and naturally produced antimicrobial and antioxidant compounds. Different parameters affecting terpenoid metabolites extraction by headspace solid-phase microextraction were considered and optimized: type of fiber coatings, extraction temperature, extraction time, ionic strength, and sample agitation. In the optimized method, analytes were extracted for 30 min at 40 C in the sample headspace with a 50/30 m divinylbenzene/carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane coating fiber. The methodology allowed the identification of a total of 27 terpenoid metabolites, representing 92.5% of the total Saaz hop-essential oil volatile terpenoid composition. The headspace composition was dominated by monoterpenes (56.1%, 13 compounds)...

Effectiveness of high-throughput miniaturized sorbent- and solid phase microextraction techniques combined with gas chromatography–mass spectrometry analysis for a rapid screening of volatile and semi-volatile composition of wines: a comparative study

Mendes, Berta; Gonçalves, João; Câmara, José S.
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /01/2012 ENG
In this study the feasibility of different extraction procedures was evaluated in order to test their potential for the extraction of the volatile (VOCs) and semi-volatile constituents (SVOCs) from wines. In this sense, and before they could be analysed by gas chromatography–quadrupole first stage masss spectrometry (GC–qMS), three different high-throughput miniaturized (ad)sorptive extraction techniques, based on solid phase extraction (SPE), microextraction by packed sorbents (MEPS) and solid phase microextraction (SPME), were studied for the first time together, for the extraction step. To achieve the most complete volatile and semi-volatile signature, distinct SPE (LiChrolut EN, Poropak Q, Styrene-Divinylbenzene and Amberlite XAD-2) and MEPS (C2, C8, C18, Silica and M1 (mixed C8-SCX)) sorbent materials, and different SPME fibre coatings (PA, PDMS, PEG, DVB/CAR/PDMS, PDMS/DVB, and CAR/PDMS), were tested and compared. All the extraction techniques were followed by GC–qMS analysis, which allowed the identification of up to 103 VOCs and SVOCs, distributed by distinct chemical families: higher alcohols, esters, fatty acids, carbonyl compounds and furan compounds. Mass spectra, standard compounds and retention index were used for identification purposes. SPE technique...

Solid phase microextraction as a reliable alternative to conventional extraction techniques to evaluate the pattern of hydrolytically released components in Vitis vinifera L. grapes

Perestrelo, Rosa; Caldeira, Michael; Câmara, José S.
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /06/2012 ENG
In present research, headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) followed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–qMS), was evaluated as a reliable and improved alternative to the commonly used liquid–liquid extraction (LLE) technique for the establishment of the pattern of hydrolytically released components of 7 Vitis vinifera L. grape varieties, commonly used to produce the world-famous Madeira wine. Since there is no data available on their glycosidic fractions, at a first step, two hydrolyse procedures, acid and enzymatic, were carried out using Boal grapes as matrix. Several parameters susceptible of influencing the hydrolytic process were studied. The best results, expressed as GC peak area, number of identified components and reproducibility, were obtained using ProZym M with b-glucosidase activity at 35 °C for 42 h. For the extraction of hydrolytically released components, HS-SPME technique was evaluated as a reliable and improved alternative to the conventional extraction technique, LLE (ethyl acetate). HS-SPME using DVB/CAR/PDMS as coating fiber displayed an extraction capacity two fold higher than LLE (ethyl acetate). The hydrolyzed fraction was mainly characterized by the occurrence of aliphatic and aromatic alcohols...

An improved and fast UHPLC-PDA methodology for determination of L-ascorbic and dehydroascorbic acids in fruits and vegetables: evaluation of degradation rate during storage

Spínola, Vítor; Mendes, Berta; Câmara, José S.; Castilho, Paula C.
Fonte: Springer-Verlag Publicador: Springer-Verlag
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /01/2012 ENG
This study provides a versatile validated method to determine the total vitamin C content, as the sum of the contents of L-ascorbic acid (L-AA) and dehydroascorbic acid (DHAA), in several fruits and vegetables and its degradability with storage time. Seven horticultural crops from two different origins were analyzed using an ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatographic–photodiode array (UHPLC-PDA) system, equipped with a new trifunctional high strength silica (100% silica particle) analytical column (100 mm×2.1 mm, 1.7 μm particle size) using 0.1% (v/v) formic acid as mobile phase, in isocratic mode. This new stationary phase, specially designed for polar compounds, overcomes the problems normally encountered in HPLC and is suitable for the analysis of large batches of samples without L-AA degradation. In addition, it proves to be an excellent alternative to conventional C18 columns for the determination of L-AA in fruits and vegetables. The method was fully validated in terms of linearity, detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) limits, accuracy, and inter/intraday precision. Validation experiments revealed very good recovery rate of 96.6±4.4% for L-AA and 103.1±4.8 % for total vitamin C, good linearity with r2-values >0.999 within the established concentration range...

A fast method using a new hydrophilic–lipophilic balanced sorbent in combination with ultra-high performance liquid chromatography for quantification of significant bioactive metabolites in wines

Silva, Catarina L.; Pereira, Jorge; Wouter, Van G.; Giró, Carme; Câmara, José S.
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /10/2011 ENG
This manuscript describes the development and validation of an ultra-fast, efficient, and high throughput analytical method based on ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) equipped with a photodiode array (PDA) detection system, for the simultaneous analysis of fifteen bioactive metabolites: gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, (−)-catechin, gentisic acid, (−)-epicatechin, syringic acid, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, m-coumaric acid, rutin, trans-resveratrol, myricetin, quercetin, cinnamic acid and kaempferol, in wines. A 50-mm column packed with 1.7-μm particles operating at elevated pressure (UHPLC strategy) was selected to attain ultra-fast analysis and highly efficient separations. In order to reduce the complexity of wine extract and improve the recovery efficiency, a reverse-phase solid-phase extraction (SPE) procedure using as sorbent a new macroporous copolymer made from a balanced ratio of two monomers, the lipophilic divinylbenzene and the hydrophilic N-vinylpyrrolidone (Oasis™ HLB), was performed prior to UHPLC–PDA analysis. The calibration curves of bioactive metabolites showed good linearity within the established range. Limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) ranged from 0.006 μg mL−1 to 0.58 μg mL−1...

Characterization of volatile substances in apples from rosaceae family by headspace solid‐phase microextraction followed by GC‐qMS

Ferreira, Liseth; Perestrelo, Rosa; Caldeira, Michael; Câmara, José S.
Fonte: WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA Publicador: WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /03/2009 ENG
The volatile composition of different apple varieties of Malus domestica Borkh. species from different geographic regions at Madeira Islands, namely Ponta do Pargo (PP), Porto Santo (PS), and Santo da Serra (SS) was established by headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) procedure followed by GC-MS (GC-qMS) analysis. Significant parameters affecting sorption process such as fiber coating, extraction temperature,extractiontime,sampleamount,dilutionfactor,ionicstrength,anddesorption time,wereoptimizedanddiscussed.TheSPMEfibercoatedwith50/30 lmdivinylbenzene/carboxen/PDMS (DVB/CAR/PDMS) afforded highest extraction efficiency of volatile compounds, providing the best sensitivity for the target volatiles, particularly whenthesampleswereextractedat508Cfor30 minwithconstantmagneticstirring. A qualitative and semi-quantitative analysis between the investigated apple species has been established. It was possible to identify about 100 of volatile compounds amongpulp(46,45,and39),peel(64,60,and64),andentirefruit(65,43,and50)inPP, PS,andSSapples,respectively.Ethylesters,terpenes,andhigheralcoholswerefound tobethemostrepresentativevolatiles. a-Farnesene,hexan-1-olandhexyl2-methylbutyratewerethecompoundsfoundinthevolatileprofileofstudiedappleswiththelargestGCarea...

Headspace solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-quadrupole mass spectrometric methodology for the establishment of the volatile composition of Passiflora fruit species

Pontes, M.; Marques, J. C.; Câmara, J. S.
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /09/2009 ENG
Dynamic headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) followed by thermal desorption gas chromatography-quadrupole mass spectrometry analysis (GC-qMS), was used to investigate the aroma profile of different species of passion fruit samples. The performance of five commercially available SPME fibres: 65 μm polydimethylsiloxane/divinylbenzene, PDMS/DVB; 100 μm polydimethylsiloxane, PDMS; 85 μm polyacrylate, PA; 50/30 μm divinylbenzene/carboxen on polydimethylsiloxane, DVB/CAR/PDMS (StableFlex); and 75 μm carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane, CAR/PDMS; was evaluated and compared. Several extraction times and temperature conditions were also tested to achieve optimum recovery. The SPME fibre coated with 65 μm PDMS/DVB afforded the highest extraction efficiency, when the samples were extracted at 50 °C for 40 min with a constant stirring velocity of 750 rpm, after saturating the sample with NaCl (17%, w/v — 0.2 g). A comparison among different passion fruit species has been established in terms of qualitative and semi-quantitative differences in volatile composition. By using the optimal extraction conditions and GC-qMS it was possible to tentatively identify seventy one different compounds in Passiflora species: 51 volatiles in Passiflora edulis Sims (purple passion fruit)...

Potentialities of two solventless extraction approaches—Stir bar sorptive extraction and headspace solid-phase microextraction for determination of higher alcohol acetates, isoamyl esters and ethyl esters in wines

Perestrelo, R.; Nogueira, J. M. F.; Câmara, J. S.
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /12/2009 ENG
A stir bar sorptive extraction with liquid desorption followed by large volume injection coupled to gas chromatography–quadrupole mass spectrometry (SBSE-LD/LVI-GC–qMS) was evaluated for the simultaneous determination of higher alcohol acetates (HAA), isoamyl esters (IsoE) and ethyl esters (EE) of fatty acids. The method performance was assessed and compared with other solventless technique, the solid-phase microextraction (SPME) in headspace mode (HS). For both techniques, influential experimental parameters were optimised to provide sensitive and robust methods. The SBSE-LD/LVI methodology was previously optimised in terms of extraction time, influence of ethanol in the matrix, liquid desorption (LD) conditions and instrumental settings. Higher extraction efficiency was obtained using 60 min of extraction time, 10% ethanol content, n-pentane as desorption solvent, 15 min for the back-extraction period, 10 mL min−1 for the solvent vent flow rate and 10 °C for the inlet temperature. For HS-SPME, the fibre coated with 50/30 μm divinylbenzene/carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane (DVB/CAR/PDMS) afforded highest extraction efficiency, providing the best sensitivity for the target volatiles, particularly when the samples were extracted at 25 °C for 60 min under continuous stirring in the presence of sodium chloride (10% (w/v)). Both methodologies showed good linearity over the concentration range tested...

Optimisation of stir bar sorptive extraction and liquid desorption combined with large volume injection-gas chromatography–quadrupole mass spectrometry for the determination of volatile compounds in wines

Coelho, Elisabete; Perestrelo, Rosa; Neng, Nuno R.; Câmara, José S.; Coimbra, Manuel A.; Nogueira, J. M. F.; Rocha, Sílvia M.
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /06/2008 ENG
Stir bar sorptive extraction and liquid desorption followed by large volume injection coupled to gas chromatography–quadrupole mass spectrometry (SBSE–LD/LVI-GC–qMS) had been applied for the determination of volatiles in wines. The methodology was optimised in terms of extraction time and influence of ethanol in the matrix; LD conditions, and instrumental settings. The optimisation was carried out by using 10 standards representative of the main chemical families of wine, i.e. guaiazulene, E,E-farnesol, β-ionone, geranylacetone, ethyl decanoate, β-citronellol, 2-phenylethanol, linalool, hexyl acetate and hexanol. The methodology shows good linearity over the concentration range tested, with correlation coefficients higher than 0.9821, a good reproducibility was attained (8.9–17.8%), and low detection limits were achieved for nine volatile compounds (0.05–9.09 μg L−1), with the exception of 2-phenylethanol due to low recovery by SBSE. The analytical ability of the SBSE–LD/LVI-GC–qMS methodology was tested in real matrices, such as sparkling and table wines using analytical curves prepared by using the 10 standards where each one was applied to quantify the structurally related compounds. This methodology allowed, in a single run...

Quantification of polyphenols with potential antioxidant properties in wines using reverse phase HPLC

Paixão, Neuza; Pereira, Vanda; Marques, José C.; Câmara, José S.
Fonte: WILEY-VCHVerlagGmbH Publicador: WILEY-VCHVerlagGmbH
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /02/2008 ENG
A RP-HPLC method with photodiode array detection (DAD) was developed to separate, identify and quantify simultaneously the most representative phenolic compounds present in Madeira and Canary Islands wines. The optimized chromatographic method was carefully validated in terms of linearity, precision, accuracy and sensitivity. A high repeatability and a good stability of phenolics retention times (a3%) were obtained, as well as relative peak area. Also high recoveries were achieved, over 80.3%. Polyphenols calibration curves showed a good linearity (r2 A0.994) within test ranges. Detection limits ranged between 0.03 and 11.5 lg/mL for the different polyphenols. A good repeatability was obtained, with intra-day variations less than 7.9%. The described method was successfully applied to quantify several polyphenols in 26 samples of different kinds of wine (red, ros and white wines) from Madeira and Canary Islands. Gallic acid was by far the most predominant acid. It represents more than 65% of all phenolics, followed by p-coumaric and caffeic acids. The major flavonoid found in Madeira wines was trans-resveratrol. In some wines, (–)-epicatechin was also found in highest amount. Canary wines were shown to be rich in gallic, caffeic and p-coumaric acids and quercetin.

Simultaneous analysis of free amino acids and biogenic amines in honey and wine samples using in loop orthophthalaldeyde derivatization procedure

Pereira, V.; Pontes, M.; Câmara, J. S.; Marques, J. C.
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /05/2008 ENG
This work presents a RP-HPLC method for the simultaneous quantification of free amino acids and biogenic amines in liquid food matrices and the results of the application to honey and wine samples obtained from different production processes and geographic origins. The developed methodology is based on a pre-column derivatization with o-phthaldialdehyde carried out in the sample injection loop. The compounds were separated in a Nova-Pack RP-C18 column (150 mm × 3.9 mm, 4 μm) at 35 °C. The mobile phase used was a mixture of phase A: 10 mM sodium phosphate buffer (pH 7.3), methanol and tetrahydrofuran (91:8:1); and phase B: methanol and phosphate buffer (80:20), with a flow rate of 1.0 ml/min. Fluorescence detection was used at an excitation wavelength of 335 nm and an emission wavelength of 440 nm. The separation and quantification of 19 amino acids and 6 amines was carried out in a single run as their OPA/MCE derivatives elute within 80 min, ensuring a reproducible quantification. The method showed to be adequate for the purpose, with an average RSD of 2% for the different amino acids; detection limits varying between 0.71 mg/l (Asn) and 8.26 mg/l (Lys) and recovery rates between 63.0% (Cad) and 98.0% (Asp). The amino acids present at the highest concentration in honey and wine samples were phenylalanine and arginine...

In-depth search focused on furans, lactones, volatile phenols, and acetals as potential age markers of Madeira wines by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with time-of-flight mass spectrometry combined with solid phase microextraction

Perestrelo, Rosa; Barros, António S.; Câmara, José S.; Rocha, Sílvia M.
Fonte: American Chemical Society Publicador: American Chemical Society
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /03/2011 ENG
The establishment of potential age markers of Madeira wine is of paramount significance as it may contribute to detect frauds and to ensure the authenticity of wine. Considering the chemical groups of furans, lactones, volatile phenols, and acetals, 103 volatile compounds were tentatively identified; among these, 71 have been reported for the first time in Madeira wines. The chemical groups that could be used as potential age markers were predominantly acetals, namely, diethoxymethane, 1,1-diethoxyethane, 1,1-diethoxy-2-methyl-propane, 1-(1-ethoxyethoxy)-pentane, trans-dioxane and 2-propyl-1,3-dioxolane, and from the other chemical groups, 5-methylfurfural and cis-oak-lactone, independently of the variety and the type of wine. GC × GC-ToFMS system offers a more useful approach to identify these compounds compared to previous studies using GC−qMS, due to the orthogonal systems, that reduce coelution, increase peak capacity and mass selectivity, contributing to the establishment of new potential Madeira wine age markers. Remarkable results were also obtained in terms of compound identification based on the organized structure of the peaks of structurally related compounds in the GC × GC peak apex plots. This information represents a valuable approach for future studies...

Optimisation of solid-phase microextraction combined with gas chromatography–mass spectrometry based methodology to establish the global volatile signature in pulp and skin of Vitis vinifera L. grape varieties

Perestrelo, Rosa; Barros, António S.; Rocha, Sílvia M.; Câmara, José S.
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /09/2011 ENG
The volatiles (VOCs) and semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) responsible for aroma are mainly present in skin of grape varieties. Thus, the present investigation is directed towards the optimisation of a solvent free methodology based on headspace-solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) combined with gas chromatography–quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC–qMS) in order to establish the global volatile composition in pulp and skin of Bual and Bastardo Vitis vinifera L. varieties. A deep study on the extraction-influencing parameters was performed, and the best results, expressed as GC peak area, number of identified compounds and reproducibility, were obtained using 4 g of sample homogenised in 5 mL of ultra-pure Milli-Q water in a 20 mL glass vial with addition of 2 g of sodium chloride (NaCl). A divinylbenzene/carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane fibre was selected for extraction at 60 °C for 45 min under continuous stirring at 800 rpm. More than 100 VOCs and SVOCs, including 27 monoterpenoids, 27 sesquiterpenoids, 21 carbonyl compounds, 17 alcohols (from which 2 aromatics), 10 C13 norisoprenoids and 5 acids were identified. The results showed that, for both grape varieties, the levels and number of volatiles in skin were considerably higher than those observed in pulp. According to the data obtained by principal component analysis (PCA)...

Allergic asthma exhaled breath metabolome: a challenge for comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography

Caldeira, M.; Perestrelo, R.; Barros, A. S.; Bilelo, M. J.; Morête, A.; Câmara, J. S.; Rocha, S. M.
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /09/2012 ENG
Allergic asthma represents an important public health issue, most common in the paediatric population, characterized by airway inflammation that may lead to changes in volatiles secreted via the lungs. Thus, exhaled breath has potential to be a matrix with relevant metabolomic information to characterize this disease. Progress in biochemistry, health sciences and related areas depends on instrumental advances, and a high throughput and sensitive equipment such as comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography–time of flight mass spectrometry (GC × GC–ToFMS) was considered. GC × GC–ToFMS application in the analysis of the exhaled breath of 32 children with allergic asthma, from which 10 had also allergic rhinitis, and 27 control children allowed the identification of several hundreds of compounds belonging to different chemical families. Multivariate analysis, using Partial Least Squares-Discriminant Analysis in tandem with Monte Carlo Cross Validation was performed to assess the predictive power and to help the interpretation of recovered compounds possibly linked to oxidative stress, inflammation processes or other cellular processes that may characterize asthma. The results suggest that the model is robust, considering the high classification rate...

Solução construtiva com elementos de aço enformados a frio

Gouveia, David Emanuel Gomes
Fonte: Universidade da Madeira Publicador: Universidade da Madeira
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Publicado em /01/2015 POR
A atual dissertação consiste numa apreciação global dos vários critérios que integram a aplicação do método construtivo de elementos estruturais de aço enformado a frio, muitas vezes designado por método prescritivo da construção em “aço leve”, “Light Steel Framing” (LSF) ou em alternativa também designado de “Light Gauge Steel Framing” (LGSF) e está especialmente vocacionado para a construção de edifícios de um a três pisos. Este conceito tem origem no facto de se usar chapas de aço de espessura reduzida, respetivamente mais leve, para fabricação dos perfis o que contribui para um menor peso dos elementos estruturais. Será abordado essencialmente o sector dos edifícios de habitação bem como a reabilitação dos mesmos, com recurso à solução em estudo, dado que é um dos setores que detém maior impacte socio-económico e ambiental. O estudo engloba igualmente a descrição e análise dos métodos construtivos, bem como os produtos empregues nesta solução sustentável, definindo desta forma uma resposta ajustada a cada subsistema da construção, desde estrutura, pavimentos, coberturas, fachadas, divisórias, climatização e acústica. Por fim, para obter um retrato da prática na Região Autónoma da Madeira...